Injectable vaccine to prevent re-emergence of polio launched(health ,GS 2,Hindu)

An injectable vaccine to prevent re-emergence of polio was launched today by the government and it will be administered in addition to polio drops to double the protection from the deadly virus, which has chances of coming back.

The Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) will be introduced in the routine immunisation programme of the government to do away with the risk of re-introduction of the disease.

Health Minister J.P. Nadda said that though India was certified polio-free on March 27, 2014, the battle against polio is not over yet.

“The virus is still active in our neighboring countries — Pakistan and Afghanistan. Cases of polio still happen there.

So the risk of re-introduction of the disease remains, particularly through importation from these endemic countries,” he said.

“We are there to give them all kinds of support including technical, experience or vaccine-related assistance. But we will have to be vigilant till the virus is eradicated globally,” Mr. Nadda said at a function here to launch the vaccine.

“To ensure that our children are doubly protected from polio, the IPV is being introduced into the routine immunisation programme,” he said

In the first phase, the IPV injection is being introduced in six states — Assam, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab.

However, the children will continue to receive OPV (polio drops) dose under routine immunisation and in pulse polio campaigns till they are 5 years of age.

“Even after receiving the IPV vaccine with the third dose of OPV (polio drops), the children must continue to receive OPV doses under routine immunisation and in pulse polio campaigns till they are five years of age,” Health Secretary B.P. Sharma said.

He said with the elimination of Type 2 polio from the country, the government is shifting from tOPV vaccine to bOPV vaccine in April 2016 and the introduction of new vaccine IPV in the immunisation programme will reduce the risk associated with the shift.


Source: xaam




90% of disasters weather related: UN report

(Important Article published on 24th Nov)

The five countries hit by the highest number of disasters were the US, China, India, Philippines and Indonesia; Storms were the deadliest.
In the past 20 years, 90 per cent of major disasters around the world were caused by nearly 6,500 recorded floods, storms, heatwaves, droughts and other weather-related events, UN spokesman has said.

A new UN-backed report, titled The Human Cost of Weather Related Disasters, found that since 1995, over 600,000 people have died as a result of weather-related disasters with 4.1 billion people injured, left homeless or in need of emergency assistance, Xinhua quoted UN spokesman Stephane Dujarric as saying on Monday.

The five countries hit by the highest number of disasters were the US, China, India, Philippines and Indonesia, said Dujarric.

The report issued by the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) notes data gaps, saying that only 35 per cent of records include information about economic losses.

UNISDR estimated that the true figure on disaster losses — including earthquakes and tsunamis — was between $250 billion and $300 billion annually.

According to the report, Asia accounts for the “lion’s share of disaster impacts” including 332,000 deaths and 3.7 billion people affected.

The death toll in Asia included 138,000 deaths caused by Cyclone Nargis which struck Myanmar in 2008.

The report also highlights that floods accounted for 47 per cent of all weather-related disasters from 1995-2015, affecting 2.3 billion people and killing 157,000.

Storms were the deadliest weather-related disaster, accounting for 242,000 deaths (40 per cent) of the global weather-related deaths, with 89 percent of these deaths occurring in lower-income countries.

Overall, heatwaves accounted for 148,000 of the 164,000 lives lost due to extreme temperatures, with 92 percent of deaths occurring in high-income countries, said the report.

Finally, drought reportedly affects Africa more than any other continent, with 136 events between 1995 and 2015, including 77 droughts in East Africa alone, the report showed.


Source: xaam




Fighting terrorism with the big boys ( GS 3,Terrorism,Hindu)

India isn’t a serious target for al-Qaeda and now ISIS despite appearing on their imaginary maps. But instead of being thankful for this situation, a number of Indian journalists and policymakers seem anxious that the country be recognised as a victim of globalised terrorism, and so an ally of the Europeans and Americans fighting against it.
Indian columnists and television anchors have vied with each other to draw a connection between the recent Paris attacks and those in Mumbai seven years previously. They have, of course, been right to do so since the earlier attacks served as precedent for a novel form of militancy — one in which a whole city could be paralysed by the coordinated, yet random, killing of people held captive in places of entertainment and public passage. Even the blasts of 1993 had made Mumbai an experimental site of militancy, for they were the first serial bombings of a city and targeted not specific places or people but the metropolis as a whole. Featured as it is in Hollywood films as well as best-selling novels, Mumbai is India’s only globally iconic city and so provides an appropriate setting for terrorism. In fact, such attacks even contribute to the city’s glamour by adding the Leopold Café to every tourist’s list of must-see places in Mumbai.

Mumbai is not Paris

Faisal Devji
Despite its role as an easily accessible and internationally recognised site for terrorist innovation, however, Mumbai doesn’t belong in the same group as Paris, London, Madrid or New York as targets of al-Qaeda and now Islamic State (ISIS) terrorism. India isn’t a serious target for these groups despite appearing on their imaginary maps like so many other places. But instead of being thankful for this situation, a number of Indian journalists and policymakers seem anxious that the country be recognised as a victim of globalised terrorism, and so an ally of the Europeans and Americans fighting against it. This longing to join the all-white club of terrorism’s leading enemies can even be seen as a perversion of the older desire that India take her place among the great powers. Indeed, the British Prime Minister’s recent speech introducing his Indian counterpart to a largely Gujarati audience at Wembley Stadium made precisely this link.
Shared threat of terror

Shifting uncomfortably between craven supplication and post-colonial paternalism, David Cameron promised Britain’s help in making India a permanent member of the UN Security Council. But he also claimed that in addition to possessing virtues like democracy in common, the two countries also shared terrorism as a threat to their existence. This is of course false, as apart from murdering British or Indian citizens, such attacks can at most threaten only the electoral prospects of governments unable to prevent them. By mentioning the shared threat of terrorism, Mr. Cameron was in effect appealing to what he may have imagined was an anti-Muslim audience of Hindus, though they seemed rather taken aback by his insinuation. Narendra Modi, too, ignored his host’s dog whistle politics and explicitly included Muslims in his description of India’s dynamism.

David Cameron’s invocation of terrorism in Wembley was disingenuous since in common with the British press, he rarely includes India in any discussion of militancy. Whatever his motives, correct about Mr. Cameron’s stance is the recognition that however novel and destructive its manifestation there, Islamic militancy in India continues to be defined by politically conventional causes rather than global ones. Involved in a bombing campaign some half a dozen years ago, the Indian Mujahideen, for example, were obsessed with avenging what they saw as the persecution of Muslims in their country, but had no vision of a future outside the Indian nation state. The Kashmiri militants of the 1990s, for their part, wanted autonomy, independence or a union with Pakistan and were never interested in caliphates or battles outside India. Similarly, Pakistan-sponsored groups are focussed on the conflict between the two states rather than some global war.

Naturally, there are and will always be Indians who gravitate towards global forms of jihad, but they don’t form a coherent group, and seem to be put to the kind of menial tasks that Indians and other Asians tend to do in West Asia more generally. Then there are those who appear to live vicarious lives as jihadis, like the mild-mannered, young professional in Bengaluru who was discovered some months ago to be running the most bloodthirsty web forum dedicated to the war in Syria. He, too, seemed to have no interest in attacking India, and like so many of those attracted by ISIS, was more concerned with the threat supposedly posed by the Shia and other sectarian minorities. If anything, then, global forms of jihad become popular in India for reasons having to do with internal cleavages within Islam rather than some undying enmity towards Hinduism or Christianity.

Sectarianism as trigger

The importance of sectarian violence may even signal the coming apart of Islam itself as a category, one that in any case only dates from the 19th century. For Islam is a term that appears a couple of times in the Koran, and for most of Muslim history does not seem to have named any kind of singular or unified entity like a religious system but instead a set of attitudes or practices. Hastened by political and economic problems in different parts of the world, the unmaking of Islam gives rise not only to unprecedented levels of sectarian conflict, but to atheism, conversion to other religions and new forms of Muslim devotion as well. This is the bigger picture within which the issues tearing apart Muslim communities as well as bringing them together in new forms need to be placed. Sectarianism then may well be the entry-point for global forms of Muslim militancy in India.

Globalised forms of militancy have only taken root where the state is failing, as in Somalia, Yemen, Afghanistan and Iraq, or where it is despotic, as in Saudi Arabia and Syria. A third case involves European countries, where neoliberalism has reduced the state and its politics to a kind of management, and that too one often delegated and outsourced to the bureaucracy or private sector. The European Union for instance, while it is indubitably a political entity, is unprecedented in that apart from a currency, it lacks every other sign of sovereignty, and has therefore to be managed by central banks rather than governed by representative institutions. In this situation, “culture” often comes to take the place of old-fashioned politics as a site of contestation, something that at the domestic level produces both Muslim identity politics and the opposite demand for a secular national culture, as well as the famous “clash of civilizations” at the international one.

While India is not immune to the politics of culture, the state continues to dominate social relations there in such a way as to define, if not produce, all forms of resistance as well. But by the same token, it limits such resistance so that Islamic militancy in India remains conventional and bizarrely even “nationalist”. Yet, while the procedures of anti-Muslim violence generally remain visceral, low-tech and highly traditional in their confinement to the riot form, that of anti-Hindu violence now relies upon bombs and other remote-controlled means of killing at a distance. And while this pattern of high-tech violence might result from the lack of popular support as much as the disparity of numbers and power involved, it also indicates the way in which Muslim forms of terrorism appear to be gravitating towards those deployed by globally dispersed jihadis. And yet they remain tied to the nation-state, which thus becomes both the cause and cure of militant Islam in India.

(Faisal Devji is Reader in Indian History and Fellow of St. Antony’s College in the University of Oxford.)


Source: xaam




IMF names yuan global reserve currency (GS PAPER 3 ,HINDU)

At present, the basket of currencies that make up the IMF’s Special Drawing Right include the dollar, euro, yen, and pound sterling.
The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund on Monday decided to include the Chinese currency, the renminbi (yuan), into its basket of currencies that make up the IMF’s Special Drawing Right (SDR). The decision was taken during the IMF’s five-yearly review of the basket of currencies.

“The Executive Board’s decision to include the RMB in the SDR basket is an important milestone in the integration of the Chinese economy into the global financial system. It is also a recognition of the progress that the Chinese authorities have made in the past years in reforming China’s monetary and financial systems,” Christine Lagarde, Managing Director of the IMF, said following the review meeting.

The continuation and deepening of these efforts will bring about a more robust international monetary and financial system, which in turn will support the growth and stability of China and the global economy, Ms. Lagarde added.

The SDR, created by the IMF in 1969, functions like an international reserve, allowing member countries to draw upon any of the reserve currencies in the basket. At present, these include the dollar, euro, yen, and pound sterling. Following the IMF’s decision, this basket will also include the renminbi from October 1, 2016 onwards.

Earlier this month, Chief Economic Advisor Arvind Subramanian had told The Hindu that the renminbi’s inclusion in the SDR basket, while great news for China, would also be good for India. The specifications of becoming a reserve currency mean that China’s ability to manipulate the renminbi will now be limited. India has so far had to deal with China’s over-capacity as well as its devalued currency.

The renmimbi becoming a reserve currency will at least lessen the latter problem, Mr. Subramanian had said at the time.

The inclusion of the renminbi in this basket has been backed by most of the major economies, including Germany, Britain, France and Italy. While the US was historically cautious about the idea, President Obama in September had said that the US would support China’s case for inclusion in the SDR basket if it met the IMF’s technical specifications.

Earlier this month, the IMF’s staff and Ms. Lagarde both recommended that the renminbi be included in the SDR basket, and the Board’s decision on Monday confirms this.


Source: xaam




BRITISH INDIA IN THE LATER MEDIEVAL AGE (Modern India,Prelims 2016 ,Mains,State PSCs,SSC )

THE CHAPTER CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING SUB HEADS

v English East India Company
v Battle of Plassey (1757)
v Treaty of Allahabad
v Carnatic Wars/Anglo French Rivalry
v First Carnatic war (1740-46)
v Second Carnatic War (1754-1756)
v Third Carnatic war (1756-1763)
v Factors responsible for the French Defeat      
v Company`s Policy in the Second half of the 18th Century
v Anglo- Mysore Wars
v Anglo-Maratha Wars
v Third Anglo-Maratha War and the End of Peshwaship

English East India Company



The English East India Company was   founded as a joint stock company of the London merchants through a loyal charter in 1600. The company was given the monopoly of all trade from England to East and was also permitted to carry bullion out of England to finance its trade.

Ø However the company did not have the mandate to carry on with conquests and colonization.
Ø The company started its formal trade after setting its competition with the Portuguese in 1613.
Ø The Mughal emperor Jahangir through a Farman gave the company the permission to establish their factories or warehouses and the first factory was set up in Surat in the same year.

In 1617 Jahangir received Sir Thomas Roe as a resident English envoy in his court. From here the company gradually extended its trading activities and by the end of the 17th century, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras emerged as major trading Centers.

Ø Political expansion started from the middle of the 18th century and within a hundred years almost all of India was under its control.
Expansion in the mid-18th century
Ø By the beginning of the 18th century, Bengal emerged as a major trading center and nearly 60% of the English imports from Asia came from Bengal.

The company had started its journey towards establishing itself as a preeminent power in India


Ø In 1690 Aurangzeb’s Farman had granted them right to duty free trade in Bengal in return for an annual payment of Rs 3000.
Ø The foundation of Calcutta, wad laid in 1690 and it was followed by the town’s fortifications in 1696.
Ø In 1698 the company got the Zamindars rights of three villages of Kolikata ,Sutanati and Gobindhpur.
Ø After the death of Aurangzeb, in 1717 emperor Farukhsiyar granted the company the rights to carry on with the dutyfree trade to rent thirty eight villages around Calcutta and to use the royal mint.

But Farruksiyar’s Farman became a source of conflict between the company and the autonomous ruler of Bengal, MurshidQuli Khan (former governor of Bengal under the mughal emperor).
Ø Qulikhan contested that the duty freeprovisions did not cover the ‘Private’ trade by the company official.
Ø The company officials misused the ‘dastaks’  (a permit exempting European traders mostly of the British east India company from paying customs or transit duties on Private trade) and the Nawab denied permission to the company to buy the thirty- eight villages and refused to offer the minting privileges.
In 1739, Alivardi Khan (1739-56) replaced Murshid Quli as the Nawab. In1740, the Austrian war of Succession broke out in Europe and the natural culmination was an open confrontation between two rival powers (the English and the French) in Bengal.But the new Nawab kept the both parties under control.
Ø But the French victory in South India under the French Governor Dupleix made British nervous and they began renovating the fortifications in Calcutta without the Nawab’s permission and defied the Nawab openly by offering protection to fugitives from his court.
Ø The situation worsened when Alivardi Khan was replaced by Siraj-ud-Daula as the Nawab of Bengal in 1756.
Ø Siraj threatened the lucrative English private trade by stopping all misuse of Dastaks.

The English further enraged the Nawab by giving asylum Krishna Vallabh who is charged with fraud by the young Nawab. Fortification of Calcutta by the English made the matters worse.

Ø These moves by the English directly challenged the authority of the Nawab and were critical to the issue of his sovereignty.
Ø The Company failed to listen to the warnings and Siraj took over the British factory at Kasimbazar.
Ø Governor Drake did not go in for reconciliation with Siraj as he was confident of beating the young Nawab.
Ø This was followed by Siraj’s attack on Calcutta and its capture.

Battle of Plassey (1757)



 Robert Clive arrived with a strong force from Madras. Apprehensive of an Afghan attack under Ahmed Shah Abdali, Siraj preferred a negotiated settlement with the English.But Clive was not in for it and decided to take on the young Nawab.

Ø Moreover certain disgruntled elements in the young Nawab’s court like the merchants, bankers, financiers and powerful Zamindars like the Jagath Seth brothers felt threatened by the Nawab’s assertion of independence and were eager to see the back of him.
Ø These was also a natural convergence of interests between the Indian mercantile community and the European leaders as many of the Indian merchants were operating in collaboration with the English Company and private leaders acting as a conduit for supplying them with textiles from interiors in exchange for advance or Dadan(Dadani system)
Any attempts towards coup were not possible without the support of Siraj’s commander in chief Mir Jafar.

Ø The proposition of becoming the Nawab was too lucrative for Mir Jafar and he decided to support Clive.
Ø The battle of Plassey was fought in June 1757 in which Siraj was defeated by Clive.
Ø This was possible only because the major contigent of the Nawabs army under Jafar”s command remained inactive.
Ø The Battle of Plassey marked the beginning of political supremacy of the East India Company in India.
Ø MirJafar succeeded Siraj and his reign marked the rampant abuse of dastaks for the English agent’s private trade moreover the company received huge amounts as contribution from the Nawab.
Ø After some time Mir Jafar found it difficult to meet the financial demands of the company and was replaced by his son in law Mir Kasim.
Ø But the conflict arouse again on the question of misuse of dastaks and the new Nawab abolished internal duties all together so that the Indian merchants could also enjoy the same privileges.
Ø The English reacted by replacing the Nawab with Mir Jafar again.
Mir Kasim fled from Bengal and formed a grand alliance with the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II and the Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-ud-daula.
The Battle of Buxar was fought in 1764 and the Indian Army was routed. The Treaty of Allahabad was signed in 1765.

Treaty of Allahabad



a)   Shah Alam, the Mughal emperor granted the “Diwani”(rights to collect revenue) of Bengal ,Bihar and Orissa i.e. absolute control over the resources of the Bengal Sabah.
b)   The British Resident was posted at the Murshidhabad court who gradually became the real administrator of Bengal .With this started the system of indirect rule as a policy of the company’s imperial governance.
c)    Shuja-ud-Daulah had to pay Rs 5million and nawab and the company would defend each other’s territory.
d)   A British Resident was to be posted in the Awadh court.
With Eastern India fairly secure under the company, the stage was now set for the British expansion in the South and the opportunity was provided by the Anglo-French rivalry.
    Carnatic Wars/Anglo French Rivalry


The French were the last European country to arrive in India, but they were the first to embark on an empire building process. Their main centre was Pondicherry which was founded in 1674.
Ø The second import centre was Chandranagore in Bengal.
Ø The French power was raised to prominence under the governorship of Dupleix.
Ø Dupliex became the governor of Chandranagore in 1731 and got the charge of Pondicherry in 1742.
Ø He after accumulating a good fortune for himself through private trade, he embarked on a journey of political expansion.
Ø Dupliex also started the policy of intervening in the disputes of the Indian rulers and thereby acquiring political control over their territories.
Ø This was a technique which was later mastered by the British.

The outbreak of the Austrian war of succession provided the immediate context for the political conflict between the two powers.
First Carnatic war (1740-46)

The French position was strengthened by the arrival of a fleet from Mauritius under the command of Admiral La Bourdaunairs.
The French under Bourdaunairs attacked the English at Madras and captured it. The surrender of Madras led to the first Carnatic War.
Ø The English asked for help from Nawab of Carnatic Anwaruddin who sent an army against the French only to be defeated in the battle of St.Thome or Adayar.
Ø Although victorious, the French were weakened by the differences between Dupliex and La Bourdaunairs who surrendered Madras to the English.
Ø Dupleix led a second attack on madras but was unsuccessful .But before this could drag on any further, the hostilities in Europe came to an end by the Treaty of Aix-La-Chappelle and this brought an end to the Anglo-French Rivalry in India as well.
Ø As per the treaty the British possession were returned to them.

Second Carnatic War (1754-1756)

The succession wars in Carnatic and Hyderabad provided Dupleix an opportunity to intervene and secure important territorial gains.
The French supported Chanda Sahib against the claims of Mohammed Ali the son of Nawab Anwaruddhin on Carnatic.
Ø In Hyderabad, the French supported the claim of Muzaffar Jung against the claims of Nazir Jung who was supported by the British.
Ø Both the French candidates emerged victorious and MuzzaffarJung,the new Nizam of Hyderabad granted substantial territorial concessions to the French in the form of Jagirs in Northern Sarkars ,Masulipattanam and some villages around Pondicherry.
Ø He also appointed a French resident in his court.
Ø Alarmed, the British sent a strong force under Robert Clive and the second Carnatic war began in 1752.
Ø The English under Clive emerged victories and he placed Mohammedali on the Carnatic throne replacing Chanda Sahib who was later on killed.
Ø Dupleix was recalled in 1754 and was replaced by Godeheu who signed a treaty left almost all the French possessions in fact and the French power was far from over.
Third Carnatic war (1756-1763)

The outbreak of the seven years war in Europe between the English and French provided the context for the third and decisive round of Anglo French conflict in South India.

Ø In the conflict that ensued in spite of having a strong French force under Comte de Lally, the French lost their position one by one.
Ø Although the French lost their position one by one.
Ø Although the French forces were reinforced by a contingent under Bussy and all the important areas including Chandranagrore, Northern  Sarkars, Masulipatnam and Yanam fell to the English.
Ø Thus ended the French influence in Deccan.
Ø The most decisive battle of the Third Carnatic War was the battle of Wandiwash in 1760 in which the French lost to the English contigent commanded by Eyre Coote.
Ø This was followed by the fall of Pondicherry in 1761.
Factors responsible for the French Defeat   
   
a)Rashness and arrogance of Lally who alienated nearly all the other French officers at Pondicherry.
b) Acute shortage of money which hindered military operations.
c) Recall of Bussy from Carnatic
d)Superiority of the English navy, ready supply of money and their self confidence.
Ø By the Peace Treaty of Paris is 1763 France got back all the factories and settlements that it possessed in India prior to 1749, with the provisos that it could not fortify Chandranagore anymore.
Ø But the balance of power in the Deccan and in India as a whole had shifted in favour of the British once and for all. Both the Deccan states of Carnatic and Hyderabad were now dependent on the British.
Ø Later Carnatic was absorbed into the British empire and the ruler was pensioned off.
Company`s Policy in the Second half of the 18th Century

It was in the second half of the 18th century (mainly towards the later the later part) that the English started slowly but steadily expanding its empire. This was because they were looking out for new recourse rich areas for interaction of fresh revenues.

Ø The English got an easy opportunity as each Indian state near trying to establish supremacy over others and they often entered into diplomat with the company to turn the balance of power is their favor.
Ø However the company was not just responding to opportunities but was also showing great deal of initiative in creating those opportunities to intervene and conquer as insecure frontiers and unstable states were often construed as threats to free flow of trade.
Ø A for a short period after the Pitts India Act of 1784, the Company embarked upon a policy of consolidation and there was a parliamentary prohibition on imperial expansion.
Ø But the caution approach was discarded with the arrival of Lord Wellesley as the governor general in 1798.
Ø He used the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt as a reason to soften Londan`s resistance to expansion although Napoleon was not a clear and present danger for India at that time.
Ø Wellesley through his policy of “subsidiary Alliance” assuaged London`s concerns as he advocated that the new policy would only establish control over the internal affairs of an Indian State without incurring any direct imperial liability.
Ø Wellesley was recalled in 1805 when his wars of conquest landed the company in a serious financial crisis.   
Anglo- Mysore Wars



The State of Mysore had stretched from Krishna in the north to Malabar Coast in the west. It inevitably brought it into conflict and the Marathas.
Ø The two powers were often in collusion with the English, who suspected Mysore`s friendship with the French Mysore’s control over the rich trade of the Malabar Coast was seen as a threat to English trade in pepper and cardamom.
Ø In 1785 Tipu declared an embargo on exports. Sandalwood and Cardamoms through the ports within his kingdom.
Ø Thus the Company merchants advocated a policy of direct political intervention to project their commercial interests moreover Tipu sultan was trying to build in Mysore a strong centralized design and a politics. Thus the mercantilist state of Mysore represented the same kind of hegemonic ambition as those of the company, which brought it is direct conflict with the state of Mysore.

In the first Anglo- Mysore was the Nizam and the Marathas sided with the English against Mysore. But Haidar Ali managed to defy defeat.

Ø In the second Anglo Mysore war the Nizam and the Marathas sided with Haider Ali.
Ø But in the battle of “Proto Novo” Haider Ali was defeated and the war ended with the Treaty of Mangalore between the English and Tipu sultan who has succeeded Haider Ali.

The Third Anglo- Maratha war started when Tipu attacked the Raja of Travancore, an ally of the British.
Ø Lord Cornwallis declared war on Tipu and war started in 1790 and came to an end with a defeat for Mysore and a humiliating treaty imposed on Tipu is the “Treaty of Sreerangapatanam.
Ø As per the treaty company annexed Dindigul, Baramahal and Malabar from Tipu.
Ø He was also asked to pay a near indemnity of Rs.3.5 crores.
Lord Wellesley declared war on the pretext that Tipu had secret negotiation with the French. This was the beginning of the Fourth and final Anglo-Mysore War.
The war ended with Srirangapatanam falling in 1799 to the company and Tipu died defending it.
Ø Mysore war once again placed under the Wodeyar`s and war brought under the Subsidiary Alliance System of lord Wellesley.
Ø Under this system the effective independence of the kingdom came to an end.
Ø Under the system Mysore was not to enter into any relationship with other European powers, a contingent of company’s army would be stationed in Mysore and the provisions for its maintenance would come from his treasury and parts of Mysore were given to Nizam who had already accepted the Subsidiary Alliance.
Anglo-Maratha Wars


The company’s cotton trade with China through Premier Western ports of Gujarat and Bombay and their control by the Maratha Confederacy (ports control) was the starting point.
Ø A succession dispute wherein, Raghunath Rao had his nephew the ‘Peshwa’ Narayan Rao killed gave the British the pretext to intervene
Ø Raghunath Rao now had to face the joint might of the Maratha confederacy i.e. the Sindhyas, The Holkars and Gaikwars.
Ø Raghunath Rao looked towards the British at Bombay for help.
Ø In 1175 Raghunath Rao’s forces were defeated and the combined British army of Madras and Bombay arrived to his rescue.

An in conclusive treaty of Purandas was signed in 1776 by which the British were offered a number of concessions to withdraw support for Raghunathan Rao.

Ø But the treaty was not ratified by the Bengal authorities and the war resumed.
Ø But the Maratha forces had regrouped under Nana Fadnavis and inflicted a crushing defeat on the British at “Wadgaon.
Ø But the British maintained Gujarat.
  
This was followed by Nana Fadnavis forming a grand alliance with the Nizam and Hyder Ali against the British in 1781.This kick started the first Anglo –Maratha War which ended with the inconclusive “Treaty of Salbai” in 1782.
Ø The following years saw the rise of Nana Fadvanis as the real power behind the Peshwa who was a mere puppet.
Ø Frustrated with the powerlessness the Peshwa committed suicide. The new Peshwa Baji Rao II wanted to get rid of Fadnavis and this happened with the latter’s death in 1800.
Ø As the Holkars started plundering the Peshwas territories the Peshwa looked at the English for help
Ø These events coincided with the dominance of Lord Wellesley who had already forced the Subsidiary alliance on Nizam and Mysore.
Ø After the Holkars army defeated the Peshwa and plundered Poona in 1802, the Peshwas fled to the British in Bassein for help and was obliged to sign the Subsidiary Alliance and hand over Surat to the Company.
Ø In return the English placed the Peshwa back on the throne and offered him protection.
Ø These events kick started the Second Anglo- Maratha War.
Ø The Maratha Sardars declared war on the English and challenged Baji Rao’s claim to Peshwaship.
Ø The war ended in an inconclusive manner although the English gained a lot including the control of Orissa.
Ø Moreover the Maratha under the Peshwa were not to enter into any kind of an alliance with any other European powers and the British’s were to be the arbiters in any dispute between the Maratha houses.

 But these wars meant a huge burden on the Company’s expenses and the Court of Directors dissatisfied with Wellesley’s forward policy replaced him with Lord Cornwallis again in 1805.
Third Anglo-Maratha War and the End of Peshwaship

All the Viceroys after Lord Wellesley followed a policy of non intervention and this allowed the Maratha Sardars like the Holkars and Sindhyas to regroup and regain their lost power.
Ø They were assisted in this task by the Pindaris(irregular soldiers).But with the arrival of Lord Hastings as Governor General in 1813, a new policy of “paramountcy ‘was initiated
Ø This policy declared the British to be the paramount power in India and any power that threatened the English interests were to be annexed or threatened to be annexed.

The Peshwa Baji Rao II around this time made a desperate last attempt to regain his independence from the English by rallying the Maratha Chiefs .

Ø This led to the third Anglo Maratha Wars in which all the Maratha Sardars were thoroughly crushed and the British took complete control of the Peshwa’s domains and the Peshwaship itself was abolished with Nanasaheb, the adopted son of Peshwa fleeing the scene.
Ø Thus the English East India Company had now completely mastered all the territories south of Vindhyas. 


Source: xaam




Female Freedom Fighters in India ((UPSC PRELIMS 2016,MAINS ,Stae PSCs ,SSC ))

When most of the men­folk were in prison then a remarkable thing happened. Our women came forward and took charge of the freedom struggle. Women had always been there of course but now there was an avalanche of them, which took not only the British Government but their own menfolk by surprise.
Ø The burden of tears and toils of the long years of struggle for India’s freedom was borne by the wives, mothers, and daughters, silently and cheerfully.
Ø The programme of self-imposed poverty and periodical jail going was possible only because of the willing co-operation of the worker’s family. In the various resistance movements in the villages, the illiterate women played this passive but contributory part as comrades of their menfolk.
Ø  Most attribute the induction of women into freedom struggle only post the Non-Cooperation movement. But woman’s participation in India’s freedom struggle began as early as 1817 when Bhima Bai Holkar fought bravely against the British colonel Malcolm and defeated him in guerilla warfare.
Ø In 1824 Rani Channama of Kittur resisted ate armed might of the East Indian Company.
Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi


Ø She was not allowed to adopt a successor after his death by the British, and Jhansi was annexed.
Ø  With the outbreak of the Revolt she became determined to fight back. She used to go into the battlefield dressed as a man.
Ø  Holding the reins of the horse in her mouth she used the sword with both hands. Under her leadership the Rani’s troops showed undaunted courage and returned shot for shot.
Ø Considered by the British as the best and bravest military leader of rebels this sparkling epitome of courage died a hero’s death in the battlefield.
Begum Hazrat Mahal

Ø She was also known as the Begum of Awadh.
Ø She also played major role during the rebellion of 1857. After death of her husband Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, she took over the affairs of state of Awadh.

Ø During the rebellion the supporters of Begum seized control of Lucknow as an act of rebellion against British East India Company and declared her son, Bijris Qadra as the ruler of the state of Awadh, though later it was recaptured by the Company and Begum was exiled to Calcutta.

Ø She drew everyone’s attention towards the demolishment of temples and mosques by the Company to make way for the construction of roads thus; hurting religious sentiments of Indians.

Kittur Rani Chennamma

Ø One of the earliest Indian rulers who fought forfreedom.
Ø 33 years before the National Uprising, this queen of a princely state in Karnataka led an armed rebellion against the British, and lost her life in the end.
Ø Even today, she is revered as one of the bravest women in Karnataka.

          


           Sarojini Naidu

Ø She campaigned for the Montagu Chelmsford Reforms, the Khilafat issue, the draconian Rowlett Act and the Satyagraha.
Ø When Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience Movement, she proved a faithful lieutenant.
Ø With great courage she quelled the rioters, sold proscribed literature, and addressed frenzied meetings on the carnage at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar.
Ø In 1930 when Mahatma Gandhi chose her to lead the Salt Satyagraha the stories of her courage became legion.
Ø After Gandhi’s arrest she had prepared 2,000 volunteers under the scorching sun to raid the Dahrsana Salt Works, while the police faced them half a mile up the road with rifle, lathis (canes) and steel tipped clubs.
Ø The volunteers wildly cheered when she shook off the arm of the British police officer who came to arrest her and marched proudly to the barbed wire stockade where she was interned before being imprisoned.
Ø Gokhale and Gandhi were her guiding influences.
 
Annie Besant

Ø Though she was British socialist she was a supporter of Indian self-rule.
Ø In 1890 she joined Theosophical society as a member and later became its president thus. She visited India
Ø She helped in the establishment of Central Hindu College, and Sind National Collegiate Board in Mumbai in 1902.
Ø In 1914 when the world was witnessing World War I she started All India Home Rule League along with Lokmanya Tilak. This body had many branches in India which was active the whole year round and mobilized agitations and demonstrations demanding home rule in India.
Ø She also joined Indian National Congress and once became president of the Congress for one year. Her active participation in politics gave way to Indians to gain independence.
Kasturba Gandhi

Ø Affectionately called Ba, she was the wife of Mohandas Gandhi.
Ø She was a leader of Women’s Satyagraha for which she was imprisoned.
Ø She helped her husband in the cause of Indigo workers in Champaran, Bihar and the No Tax Campaign in Kaira, Gujarat.
Ø She was arrested twice for picketing liquor and foreign cloth shops, and in 1939 for participating in the Rajkot Satyagraha.


   Aruna Asaf Ali

Ø Participated in public processions during the Salt Satyagraha. She was arrested on the charge that she was a vagrant and hence not released in 1931 under the Gandhi-Irwin Pact which stipulated release of all political prisoners.
Ø Other women co-prisoners refused to leave the premises unless she was also released and gave in only after Mahatma Gandhi intervened. A public agitation secured her release.
Ø On August 8, 1942, the AICC passed the Quit India resolution at the Bombay session.
Ø The government responded by arresting the major leaders and all members of the Congress Working Committee and thus tried to pre-empt the movement from success.
Ø A young Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the remainder of the session on 9 August and hoisted the Congress flag at the Gowalia Tank maidan.
Ø This marked the commencement of the movement. The police fired upon the assembly at the session.
Ø Aruna was dubbed the Heroine of the 1942 movement for her bravery in the face of danger and was called Grand Old Lady of the Independence movement in her later years.
Ø Aruna Asaf Ali was awarded International Lenin Peace Prize for the year 1964. She was awarded India’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna, posthumously in 1997.

Madam BhikaijiCama

Ø During the epidemic of bubonic plague that hit Mumbai in 1896, she herself got infected with the disease while providing aid to the others.
Ø Throughout her life she struggled for Indian Independence from abroad as she was told by her acquaintances not to take part in freedom struggle if she comes back to India.
Ø While working as secretary to DadabhaiNaoroji she supported the founding of Shyamji Krishna Verma’s Indian Home Rule Society.
Ø On 22nd august 1907, she unfurled the Indian flag (Flag of Indian Independence) in Stuttgurt, Germany while attending the International Socialist Conference, there she made people aware of the aftermath of the famine that had hit the Indian Subcontinent and raised her voice for the human rights and equality in India.
Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit

Ø Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit was sister of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and played crucial role in Indian politics.
Ø She was the first women to become cabinet minister, she was designated the post of minister of local self-government and public health.
Ø She is well known for her political and diplomatic role during the freedom struggle.
Ø She was the first woman president of United Nations General Assembly.
Ø She was also the first woman ambassador in the world who attained the position in three countries – Moscow, Washington and London.
Sucheta Kripalani

Ø She was a freedom fighter and worked closely with Mahatma Gandhi during Partition riots in India.
Ø She also played major role in politics by joining Indian National Congress.
Ø During the formation of constitution of India she was elected as a member of the drafting committee of Constituent assembly.
Ø Another feather to her cap is attached when she sang “VandeMataram” in the Constituent Assembly.
Ø She was also elected as the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh state after independence.
DurgaBaiDeshmukh

Ø She was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi and thus; played active role in Gandhi Satyagraha movement and played role of Indian struggler, a lawyer, a social activist and a politician.
Ø She was a Lok Sabha member as well as member of Planning Commission of India.
Ø While being member of Planning Commission she launched a Central Social Welfare Board through which she improved condition of education, women, children, handicap and rehabilitation of needy persons.

Usha Mehta

Ø She was one of the youngest freedom fighters of the Indian freedom movement. She was hardly five years old when she met Gandhi and was inspired by his ideals.
Ø At the age of 8, she participated in the ‘Simon Go Back’ protest. 
Ø A very great contribution to her credit is the origination of Congress Radio also known as Secret Congress Radio, which was an underground radio station which was active for few months during the Quit India Movement of 1983.
Ø Due to this clandestine activity she was imprisoned in Yeravda Jail of Pune.

            SavitribaiPhule


Ø Along with her husband, JyotiraoPhule, she played an important role in improving women’s rights in India during British rule.
Ø The couple founded the first women’s school at BhideWadai in Pune in 1848.
Ø She also worked to abolish discrimination and unfair treatment of people based on caste and gender.
Ø She is described as one of the first-generation modern Indian feminists, and an important contributor to world feminism in general, as she was both addressing and challenging not simply the question of gender in isolation but also issues related to caste and casteist patriarchy.

Ø Women shouldered critical responsibilities in India’s struggle for freedom.
Ø They held public meetings, organized picketing of shops selling foreign alcohol and articles, sold Khadi and actively participated in National Movements.
Ø They bravely faced the baton of the police and went behind the iron bars
Ø Hundreds and thousands of Indian women dedicated their lives for obtaining freedom of their motherland. The above mentioned women are but a few among them.


Source: xaam




Developing nation climate adaptation bill to hit $790 billion per year: Oxfam

Developing countries could face a bill of USD 790 billion per year by 2050 for adapting to climate change, anti-poverty agency Oxfam said today.
Carbon-curbing pledges which form the cornerstone of a climate rescue pact to be sealed at a UN summit opening in Paris next week are insufficient, it said in a report.
Current commitments from some 170 nations put the world on track to warm by three degrees Celsius over mid-19th century levels — a full 1 C higher than the United Nations target.
Unless much more is done, developing nations will end up spending about 50 percent more on climate adaptation by mid-century than they would under a 2 C scenario, the report said.
“World leaders need to step up. We need further cuts to emissions and more climate funding,” Oxfam Executive Director Winnie Byanyima said in a statement.
“The human cost of climate change must be central to discussions in Paris so we get a better climate deal for poor people,” she said.
In addition to costly impacts like flooding, droughts and extreme weather, developing nations’ economies stand to lose USD 1.7 trillion annually by 2050 if warming breaches 3 C, the report says.
A key test for Paris will be to include a mechanism in the pact to periodically review and improve the pledges until the 2 C goal comes into view.
Countries do not agree how often reviews should be done, or whether there should be an obligation to automatically ramp up efforts.
Money will be a make-or-break issue at the talks. Rich nations have pledged to muster USD 100 billion per year in financial support for poor countries from 2020.
A UN-commissioned estimate showed international climate finance amounted to USD 62 billion in 2014.


Source: xaam




25 November The Hindu E paper


Source: xaam




IAS trainees to get MA degrees from Jawaharlal Nehru University

According to Sudhir Kumar Sopory, VC, JNU, recognition to the course for LBSNAA is similar in nature to the recognition that the university grants to various courses run by other top institutions such as Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Indian Military Academy or National Institute of Immunology.
“After a thorough consultation and auditing of the course content the university granted its recognition to the two-year course for IAS trainees,” Sopory said. “Though the course will be conducted in LBSNAA, there will be experts from JNU as well and there will be an academic audit of the course over a period of two to three years. JNU has a pan India presence in terms of recognising courses of premier institutes in diverse areas and this is a part of that.”
All officers coming out of academies such as NDA are also awarded JNU degrees. Bupinder Zutshi, registrar, JNU, said this will be the first course for IAS trainees. “This course is only for IAS trainees and not for allied services. Just like a JNU degree, it will have 64 credit courses.”
The recognition of the degree, to be conducted by LBSNAA, was granted by the executive council last week and LBSNAA will be able to start the course from the next session for the new batch.


Source: xaam




A Dying Breed? (Red List Species ,GS paper 3 ,Environment and Biodiversity )

With rampant urbanisation and expansion of metropolitan cities,   birds are constantly decreasing in number and the number of endangered bird species are rising at a disturbing rate.
Year after year, the condition of birds, which are one of the indicators of the state of the environment, is deteriorating further, due to factors like habitat destruction and unsustainable development. The latest Red List of birds released by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) for 2015 shows that a total of 180 bird species in India are now threatened, as against 173 last year. Only one species has moved out of the Red List. The latest addition to the list, based on studies conducted by BNHS-India, BirdLife International (UK-based) and other partner organisations, reveal that bird habitats like grasslands and wetlands are under threat.
“The list of threatened species keeps on increasing with every assessment. That itself symbolises that our efforts for conservation of species are not adequate. We need to logically rethink the developmental agenda, especially for the habitats and areas where these species exist. Some of the neglected habitats should therefore be a part of protected areas or marked as ecologically sensitive sites,” says Dr Deepak Apte, Director BNHS.
Habitat loss and other threats
Birds face a range of threats in today’s times, among which habitat loss is
 common to most species in the Red List. Grasslands, wetlands, forests and other habitats are getting destroyed at an alarming rate, primarily due to unsustainable developmental activities. For instance, Red Knot, which is usually found in coastal areas, mudflats and sandy beaches, is facing several threats like destruction of coastal ecosystems, land reclamation, pollution, over-exploitation of its main prey – shellfish – and illegal hunting. Similarly, Great Knot is threatened by degradation and loss of wetland habitat. Another wetland bird – Curlew Sandpiper – is under threat due to factors like reservoir and marshland alteration by commercial salt works, habitat degradation because of diminishing rainfall and hunting, particularly along the south-east coast of India near Point Calimere.
“Animals and birds are designed for a particular habitat where there is a particular kind of food. They can’t survive in any other environment. So if that environment is lost, they disappear. This is how they become extinct,” says M Shafaat Ullah, secretary, Bird Watchers’ Society of Andhra Pradesh (BSAP).
The status of vultures in India continues to be precarious, even as efforts are on at various levels to conserve them, such as captive breeding, carcass surveys, advocacy, ban on veterinary diclofenac, reduction in vial size of human diclofenac and identification of vulture safe zones for future release of captive birds.
Drastic reduction of birds in Hyderabad
Much like the rest of the country, Hyderabad too has witnessed an alarming reduction in birds over the last few years due to rampant expansion and climate change. Even the seasonal birds that would normally migrate to the city, have disappeared in recent times.
“This year, rains have been very scarce. Lot of migrant birds would come from Central Asia, to places like Gandipet and Himayath Sagar. But if there is no water at all, they will go somewhere else. Even if there is excess rains and when there is muddy water, there is nothing to eat for the birds so they don’t come. In peninsular India, lot of migration of birds depends upon weather conditions,” Shafaat Ullah observes.
Giving an example of one such rare breed disappearing from the city’s landscape, he says, “The great Indian Bustard would often be seen at bird sanctuaries. However, over the last two to three years, none of us have been able to see this bird. This is either due to too many black bucks coming up or because the cropping pattern has changed since dams have come up. About ten to twelve years ago, we used to see eight to ten Bustards wherever we went. But now we aren’t seeing the Bustards. So this is a very dangerous trend.”
The BSAP secretary also laments the fact that politicians are doing little to preserve natural resources in the country.
“We are constantly expanding. We require more land for factories, universities, housing, etc. For this to happen, forests and sanctuaries are disappearing,” he rues.” To give you an example, Kolleru Lake is the largest freshwater lake system in Asia.  It has been declared as a sanctuary upto five feet contour. Now Andhra Pradesh CM Chandrababu Naidu wants it to be reduced from five ft Contour to three ft Contour, which means half the sanctuary will disappear. There are millions of birds coming here every year. What will happen to them?
The AP CM wants to take away the reserve forests around Amaravati for building the capital city. If the Chief Minister himself does this, then what will happen to the plight of the birds?,” Shafaat furiously questions.

Shafaat, an avid bird watcher, reflects back to two decades ago in Hyderabad and says there has been a drastic change in the number of birds spotted on a daily basis.
“I live in Road number 3, Banjara hills, we built our house in 1992. At the time there were so many open spaces around our house that atleast 16 to 18 species of birds I used to count in our neighbourhood. Today, there are hardly four or five species of birds. This is because all the open spaces are all filled up. There is no place for them to come,” he says, with a heavy heart. Many bird watchers in the city feel that even birds that were once commonly seen, have now become a rare sight on city roads.
“Even crows and sparrows are becoming a rarity on Hyderabad roads. Pigeons have totally taken over our city’s landscape. This could also be harmful to our human health as they are likely carry a lot of pests, which can impact human health. There are some species of birds which are in huge numbers, whereas there are some species which you do not see at all,” laments Farida Tampal, director, WWF Hyderabad.
While the advancement of technology has often been criticised for damaging natural species, Farida feels that it’s mainly due to loss of habitat and fluctuating climate that is affecting the bird population. “A lot of people say it is because of cell phone towers but that is incorrect.  It is primarily due to loss of habitat. Some birds require the presence of tall trees, but we don’t have tall trees. So even that has an impact on the diversity of birds that we see in a city like Hyderabad,” she adds.
Species added to Red List
Among eight species newly added to the Red List, five have been uplisted (a sign of increased threat) from Least Concerned to Near Threatened category.  These include Northern Lapwing, a grassland bird and four wetland birds – Red Knot, Curlew Sandpiper, Eurasian Oystercatcher and Bar-Tailed Godwit. Two other wetland birds –  Horned Grebe and Common Pochard have been uplisted from Least Concerned to Vulnerable.  Steppe Eagle, a raptor from grasslands and a regular winter visitor to the sub-continent, has been uplisted from Least Concerned to Endangered. Amidst this negative news, there is positive news that the passage migrant – European Roller – has been downlisted from Near Threatened to Least Concerned. In 2014, eight new species were added to the Red List – Woolly-necked Stork, Andaman Teal, Andaman Green Pigeon, Ashy-headed Green Pigeon, Red-headed Falcon, Himalayan Griffon, Bearded Vulture and Yunnan Nuthatch.


Source: xaam