Hindi Medium Second Current Affair Test 2 is activated Covering current Affairs of July Part 2 , 2016

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Economy Hindi Handwritten Notes

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Yemen Crisis Visionias booklet

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Polity Mock Test 1 Based on Previous Year Questions is Activated Prelims 2017 Test Series Update

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Child marriage: not just a girls' problem but an economic disaster

Suggested approach:Social issues connected with economic impact has been always a good stuff for UPSC. so while dealing with such issues keep in mind that these issues must be discussed with broader or global attributes keeping indian constraints in mind.Child marriage is a human rights violation. Despite laws against it, the practice remains widespread, in part because of persistent poverty and gender inequality. In developing countries, one in every three girls is married before reaching age 18. One in nine is married under age 15. Please write your answer carefully.

Model answer:

  • Child marriage, defined as a formal marriage or informal union before age 18, is a reality for both boys and girls, although girls are disproportionately the most affected. Child marriage is widespread and can lead to a lifetime of disadvantage and deprivation.
  • child marriage violates their human rights. It threatens their lives and health, as well as their future prospects, exposing them to early pregnancy, and increasing their vulnerability to exploitation and abuse. Child marriage, quite simply, robs them of their future.
  • Early marriage put girls at risk of complications in pregnancy or childbirth – complications that are a leading cause of death among older adolescents in developing countries.
  • Including sexual violence, than girls who marry over the age of 18, and to be more exposed to sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.
  • drop out of school rate increase so they can assume household responsibilities, losing the right to complete their education. Child marriage limits their opportunities, including their job prospects, and has long-term effects on their families.
  • The families That are separated during natural disasters or conflicts, or when they are faced with economic hardships that prompt parents to marry off their underage daughters.

Economic impact:

  • The cost of child marriage considered solely from the labour-market perspective is estimated at almost 75,000 million
  • Initial findings from the analysis of existing data indicate that, in addition to the harmful effects on girl’s health, education, rights and wellbeing – the economic impacts of child marriage are significant.
  • Unequal power relations between men and women, women’s and girl’s’ restricted rights and opportunities, and norms which place a higher value on sons than daughters, all reinforce the practice.

  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that underpin the 2030 Agenda, whose central pledge is to leave no one behind.
  • In partnership with governments in implementing proven strategies for change: keeping children – especially girls – in school, increasing their access to healthcare, educating their parents and communities, increasing economic support to families, and putting in place and enforcing legislation.
  • Conclusion:

    • Strong partnerships at all levels are required to end child marriage. The scale of the problem requires all of us – governments, local actors, the global community and the United Nations – to act together. All of us need to join hands to give back to children their choices, their dreams, their futures and their childhoods.


    Source: xaam.in




    The alphabet soup at Goa

    As Indian foreign policy looks westwards, the BRICS summit offers India an opportunity to calibrate its outreach to multiple powers.

    This weekend will see Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his foreign policy team undertake a complex and significant manoeuvre. This comes at a time when relations with Pakistan have discovered a new trough, the SAARC grouping is gasping for breath, the Chinese continue to demonstrate obstinate determination to hurt, harm and impede India on multiple fronts and the relationship with Russia is in dire need of resuscitation.
    The annual BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) summit in Goa on October 15-16 is undeniably the main course but hidden in the main course is a set of ingredients with an independent chemistry, the IBSA (India, Brazil and South Africa), along with the plat d’accompagnement, BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation), that has as much potential as the main course. South Block will need to use this opportunity to respond to the current realities in India’s north and west, even as it consolidates India’s diplomatic push east and south, while opening new avenues for engaging its western partners in innovative ways.

    The American factor

    Even a cursory reading of India’s foreign policy under Mr. Modi reveals an unmistakable shift of its locus westward. A concrete manifestation of this shift is the vigorous engagement with the U.S. on defence, counterterrorism, as well on global-commons issues such as climate change. Both countries find themselves now (more often than not) speaking in the same voice, articulating the same objectives, and confronting similar challenges, be it the rise of Islamist terror or Chinese ambivalence towards a rules-based order.
    Arguably and beyond the ‘values’ discourse, this deep engagement with the geographical west is a lynchpin of the Indian strategy towards being a putative great power seeking to shape international norms in the 21st century. Even so, it cannot and should not disengage with other powers such as China and Russia, howsoever different their value systems may appear today. They are in one instance a large neighbour with historical antipathy, and in the other India’s only resort to strategic arsenals and high technology pursuits.
    There is also genuine convergence in certain areas — such as non-interventionism and on political-economy issues, between India and China and India and Russia. In the case of China, the tyranny of bilateral disputes (mostly on the strategic side) has prevented both countries from exploring much common ground. And with Russia, the U.S.-India entente is being understood by Moscow as a substantial shift in the intent of India towards the bilateral relationship. In fact, there seems to have been a serious underestimation in both capitals of the drift in the India-Russia relationship. Perhaps the Uri terror attack was an important moment for both to realise that extent.
    This is where BRICS comes in. Through the presence of two other actors, Brazil and South Africa, not party to complicated triangular geopolitical dynamics, India in BRICS seeks to downplay its bilateral disputes with China and engage with it on issues where there is space for beneficial cooperation. The China relationship today is heading south, and with effort, it may at best become a well-managed one. With Russia on the other had, India needs to use this summit meet and the BRICS engagement to reclaim its traditional space and reassure the Kremlin that Moscow is India’s foremost global partner.
    The decision to invite BIMSTEC countries, in place of SAARC, to the BRICS summit is clearly a decision that relocates India’s ‘neighbourhood first’ policy to its east. With this decision, Mr. Modi seeks to bring his neighbourhood policy, India’s ‘act east’ policy, and its global governance goals, engaged with through the BRICS, in sync with each other. Brazil, Russia and South Africa have very limited in-roads into the Bay of Bengal littorals and may discover merit in engaging with this community. By playing the role of a ‘sincere interlocutor’ between BRICS and BIMSTEC, India stands to gain influence in both (despite China’s growing presence) as a benign transcontinental bridge.

    The IBSA potential

    This BRICS summit will also be an occasion for the three democracies in that grouping to meet on the sidelines and plot their future course. IBSA is in many ways more organic than BRICS. Beyond the shared commitment to democracy, the three countries are truly southern and developing economies and have the potential to emerge as a marquee example of south-south cooperation of emerging liberal economies across three continents. Without the presence of two military/economic behemoths, IBSA is a grouping of equals, more than BRICS can ever be. However, IBSA, it seems, struggles to excite either South Africa or Brazil, who feel sated in the presence of China and Russia at the BRICS.
    This can be changed. Going forward, IBSA should engage with both the U.S. and one European power, like Germany, to promote a true concert of democracies across each continent, bringing advanced economies alongside emerging ones. At a time when illiberal impulses are in ascendancy, IBSA in tandem with the U.S. and the sole resurgent European power, Germany, can emerge as strong defenders of the rules-based open order across political and economic spaces.
    Brazil and South Africa have had differences with China in the past over Beijing’s heavy-handed economic policies. Brazil, under its new president Michel Temer, wants to pivot back to its traditional economic partners, the U.S. in particular. This bodes well for IBSA to emerge as a liberal bridge between the north and the south. Put differently, the antidote to the common (if somewhat misplaced) perception of BRICS as a pawn in the grand strategy of China and Russia lies within BRICS itself, the IBSA. Along with BIMSTEC, IBSA points to the multiple collateral possibilities at Goa, and to a new moment that may see recalibration of Indian foreign policy.
    Samir Saran is Vice President, and Abhijnan Rej is a Fellow, at the Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi.
    Keywords: BRICS summitIndian foreign policySouth BlockIndia foreign relations


    Source: xaam.in




    U.S. backs Indian position on cross-border terrorism

    This is the clearest indication till date of the Obama administration’s support for India’s pre-emptive military operations.

    The U.S. empathises with India’s position that it needs to militarily respond to cross-border terrorism. But given the history of wars between Indian and Pakistan and the heavily militarised character of the region, both sides must show restraint and caution, a senior White House official said on Wednesday.
    In the clearest indication till date of the Obama administration’s support for India’s pre-emptive military operation targeting terrorist positions across the LoC recently, Peter Lavoy, Senior Director for South Asia at the National Security Council said: “It [Uri] was a clear case of cross-border terrorism. We condemn this act of terrorism. It was a horrific attack. Every country has a right to self-defence. But in a heavily militarised relationship that has also experienced three wars, there is indeed a need for caution and restraint. We share with India, the concern…. for preventing any future attack. We empathise with the Indian position that it needs to respond militarily to cross border threat of terrorism. But we also advise caution.”
    Mr. Lavoy said the Obama administration was making all efforts to ensure that India joined the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) before the end of the year.
    The U.S and India had “significantly increased” mutual interaction on Afghanistan, the official said. “Our commander in Afghanistan travels to New Delhi regularly for consultations. India and the U.S have reconvened the trilateral meeting along with Afghanistan recently in New York,” he said.
    Mr. Lavoy was interacting with the audience at the Centre of Strategic and Interaction Studies after the release of a report on the agenda for India-U.S. relations for the next U.S. President. Richard M. Rossow, Senior Fellow and Wadhwani Chair at the CSIS, moderated the interaction.

    The personal leadership of the next U.S. President would have an impact on the India-U.S relationship, Mr. Lavoy said. “We have created the foundation… for the partnership. That is reliable and will serve the administration very well. But every significant global relationship needs leadership. It will be critically important that the next President provides the same kind of leadership that President Obama provided for India-U.S relations,” Mr. Lavoy said.


    Source: xaam.in




    Why the 2016 economics Nobel for contract theory really matters

    Relevance and use of the article in UPSC prelims and mains examination: Dear aspirants, this article is basically a informative one can be useful for Paper III, But still we focus on the core issue about the contract theory for which the nobel awarded this year. We can find out that apart from many things this theory can be implemented in public policy formulation in india. Specially in the designing of the telecom auctions or the public distribution system. So let’s find out how.

    Introduction:

    • Professor Oliver Hart, and Andrew E. Furer Professor of Economics at Harvard, has been jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences.
    • Professor Hart shares the award with Bengt Holmström for their contributions to contract theory – work which “lays an intellectual foundation for designing policies and institutions in many areas, from bankruptcy legislation to political constitutions” the prize awarding body said.
    • It is”a comprehensive framework for analysing many diverse issues in contractual design, like performance-based pay for top executives, deductibles and copays in insurance, and the privatisation of public-sector activities.”

    What is the Nobel Prize in Economics?

    • The Nobel Prize in Economics (or more volubly the Swedish National Bank’s Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), was first awarded in 1968 based on a donation from Sweden’s central bank, on its 300th anniversary. It is thus the youngest addition to the Nobel prize family and each year recognizes an outstanding contribution to the economics field.
    • This is the 48th year in which the prize has been given and the two winners will share a prize of 8m Swedish krona ($920,000).

    What is contract theory?

    • Contract theory aims to further our understanding about how actors in the economy build contractual arrangements between themselves. In particular, given that contracts are often developed under incomplete information, or asymmetric information (when one party has more information than the other in the transaction), it explores ways to overcome suboptimal outcomes brought about by fears of “moral hazard” or free riding. How can optimal contracts for all parties be built under such constraints?
    • Optimal contracts can be developed by modelling behaviours of decision makers under different assumptions, and then applying specific rules to encourage optimal decisions (where both parties in a transaction are better off). The idea is to find ways to get actors to take appropriate actions, for example in the cases of selling used cars, taking out insurance or devising employment contracts.

    What is so special about this contribution?

    • According to the Nobel Committee, the initial contributions of the two winners “launched contract theory as a fertile field of basic research… we now have the tools to analyse not only contracts’ financial terms, but also the contractual allocation of control rights, property rights, and decision rights between parties. The contributions by the laureates have helped us understand many of the contracts we observe in real life.”
    • In other words they have contributed a very valuable tool for the functioning of everyday transactions. In an economic climate characterized by so much uncertainty and distrust, this is an important contribution, and one that will remain useful for years to come.

    Types of contract:

    • They could be formal or informal, depending on whether they are enforced by law or social norms. They could be complete or incomplete, which is based on whether they take into account all possibilities that lay in the future.

    How this theory help us:(Explanation with Example)

    • Contract theory helps us understand these problems. And helps us solve them through better contract design. Take a simple informal contract. A harried mother has to leave the house for a couple of hours. She is worried her two children will bring the house down by fighting over a large piece of cake in the refrigerator.
    • The mother leaves a simple instruction—the elder child will cut the cake while the younger one will choose which piece to eat. Now, the elder child cannot cheat. The mother has aligned their interests—or achieved incentive compatibility—through an informal contract.

    Practical Utilization of of theory in indian terms:

    • “The contributions by the laureates have helped us understand many of the contracts we observe in real life. They have also given us new ways of thinking about how contracts should be designed, both in private markets and in the realm of public policy.” The use of contract theory in public policy is something that the Indian government needs to learn, be it the design of telecom auctions or the public distribution system.

    Conclusion :

    • Through their initial contributions, Hart and Holmström launched contract theory as a fertile field of basic research. Over the last few decades, they have also explored many of its applications. Their analysis of optimal contractual arrangements lays an intellectual foundation for designing policies and institutions in many areas, from bankruptcy legislation to political constitutions.
    • The fact that the 2016 Nobel Prize in economics has gone to two giants of contract theory tells us something else as well. Most of the public attention is lavished on macroeconomics and the related dark art of forecasting. This is where the crisis of economics is the deepest.
    Practice question For prelims:
    Question:
    Consider the following statements:
    • Nobel prize in economics sciences for 2016 is awarded to Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom jointly.
    • Both were awarded for their work on contract theory – which “lays an intellectual foundation for designing policies and institutions in many areas, from bankruptcy legislation to political constitutions”
    Which of the following statement is correct:
    • Only 1
    • Only 1 and 2
    • Only 2
    • All of the above are correct.
    Question For Mains :
    This years prize in economic sciences is awarded for the work on contract theory. Which lays an intellectual foundation for designing policies and institutions in many areas. Place your views that how far this theory is useful for Indian policy formulation domain.
    (200 words)
    Suggested hint for framing your answer:
    • Introduction about this year’s nobel prize.
    • Glimpse of contract theory
    • How it is helpful in designing policies for institutions.
    • With suitable example explain how it can affect indian policy formulation.
    • conclude


    Source: xaam.in