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2016 Mains Question Paper Repository

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Telugu Literature Both Papers – 2016 Mains

Telugu Literature Both Papers – 2016 Mains
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End of Sterilization camps?

End of Sterilization camps?

Few years back, in Chattisgarh, around 53 sterilizations were done in 12hours. Around 13 tribal women had lost their lives due to the botched tubectomies under unhygienic and cruel conditions. The Supreme Court recently gave its judgement on the Devika Biswas v/s Union of India case, in which the Court has asked the Centre to frame a National health Policy by the end december. Further, the Supreme Court has also told the centre to frame the policy keeping gender equity in mind.

Ethical sterilization

The matter of concern here is the ethical sterilization of both males and females and the implementation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare’s guidelines on Female Sterilization, 1999. Since health is a state subject, the centre is unwilling to share the burden of sterilization methods and procedures. But, the truth is that population control is a national concern and both the centre and the states should participate with equal interest in it.

The National Population Policy

The National Population Policy of 2000, framed the objectives of meeting the contraception needs of the entire population, that of health personnel, healthcare infrastructure and the basic reproduction and child healthcare. The most important objective to note here is the universal access to information and counseling regarding the wide choices of contraception methods. Along with the information, it is also the right of the individual to choose the method of contraception he or she desires.
Unfortunately, the cases of forced sterilization are not new. The health workers and ASHA workers often misguide women regarding the sterilization operations, calling them ‘simple’ and ‘painless’. The motive behind this action is certain luring offers that are provided to them in case they can achieve their targets of female sterilizations.

Rights of women

Forced sterilizations violate the right to information, the right to have informed choices of safe and effective methods of surgery. When several deaths had occurred due to forced sterilizations, the basic right to life was violated. It is the duty of the health workers to provide proper counseling to the patients before carrying on such operations.
In India, the percentage of vasectomies still remains abysmally low despite the fact that vasectomy is an easier and a reversible procedure. Many false social beliefs are still prevalent like the sense of losing fertility, masculinity, etc. With proper counseling, and raising awareness, vasectomies can be made more frequent as compared to tubectomies.
But, under no circumstance should sterilization be forced upon any individual. Extreme measures for population control can go against the democratic nature of our country. Rather, the government should focus more on promotion of education of women and granting the right to a woman on taking her own pregnancy decisions. This can automatically help achieve the population targets.


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Bones of child found in megalithic urn

Bones of a child, believed to date back to 3,000 years, unearthed during an excavation at an urn burial megalithic site near Nadapuram.

Believed to date back to 3,000 years

Bones of a child, believed to date back to 3,000 years, were unearthed during an excavation at an urn burial megalithic site near Nadapuram in Kozhikode district. Megalithic refers to a period from 1000 BC and 500 AD.

The site was discovered when the courtyard of Kadayam Valayath Balakrishnan, a resident of Varikkoli, was being dug. “The one-metre urn burial jar was found 1.5 metres under the earth. A black and red ware bowl and a black ware pottery were inside the jar. The red and black colour of the bowl may be due to the temperature variation while in the furnace. But a significant aspect of the discovery is that the urn contained bone pieces including parts of limb and thorax of a child aged between 5 and 10 years,” said N.K. Ramesh, an anthropologist-cum-archaeologist, who visited the site.

The archaeological remains, including pottery, which are wheel-based and kiln-based, have been shifted to the Kunjali Marakkar Memorial Museum of the State Department of Archaeology at Iringal following a directive by K.P. Sadhu, in-charge of the museum.

Five years ago, an eagle-head-like figure, iron chopper, dagger, black ware pottery with lid, terracotta figurines and an urn burial jar were found from Perumundassery, 2 km from this site.

“The recent archaeological discoveries from Kozhikode clearly shows the rich pre and proto historic habitation of the State,” said P. Rajendran, geo-archaeologist and former scientist of University Grants Commission.

Prof. Rajendran, who has been credited with the discovery of the a well-fossilised human skull (christened laterite baby) dating back to 1.66 lakh years at a site near Villupuram district in Tamil Nadu, said that even now the primitive customs of Megalithic age were practised by the tribal community.

Mr. Ramesh said the secondary burial practices had been widely accepted in Megalithic culture. Sometimes personal properties or materials such as pottery, ornaments, and weapons of the deceased were also kept in the burial urn. Previously, a large number of iron ingots were detected at another megalithic urn burial and cist burial sites at Manikkovilakam and Kuitheri in Kozhikode. This also showed that iron-smelting technology was prevalent in the area in the pre-historic age, he said.


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2016 Mains GS Paper 2 , Repeated Question from previous Year Mains

Repeated question in 2016
Q. To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “temporary provision
with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this
provision in the context of Indian polity.(2016
Explain the significance of Article 370 in the Constitution of India (1988,1990)
Q. “The Indian party system is passing through a phase of transition which looks to be full of
contradictions and paradoxes.” Discuss(2016)
Is it correct to describe the party system in India as One party Dominant system ?Give reasons for your
answer (1985)
Q.Exercise of CAG’s powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and the States is derived from
Article 149 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss whether audit of the Government’s policy implementation
could amount to overstepping its own (CAG) jurisdiction? (2016)
(Question related to CAG ) Distinguish between the auditing and Accounting functions of the CAG of
India. (2008 )
Q.Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the ‘Preamble’. Are they defendable in the
present circumstances?(2016)
What was the amendment in 1975, in the preamble of the Constitution? Discuss its significance.(1983)
What are the major commitments of the Constitution of India as incorporated in its
preamble(1988)
What is the significance of a preamble to a constitution? Bring out the philosophy of the Indian polity as
enshrined in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.(2004)
Q. What was held in the Coelho case? In this context, can you say that judicial review is of key
importance amongst the basic features of the Constitution? (2016)
Question on Judicial review
Is it possible to distinguish between judicial review and judicial activism in India? Does the
recent behavior of the Indian judiciary partake more of judicial activism? Argue with suitable
examples.(2005
Q.“Increasing cross-border terrorist attacks in India and growing interference in the internal
affairs of member-states by Pakistan are not conducive for the future of SAARC (South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation).” Explain with suitable examples. (2016)
Discuss the significance of the 4th SAARC Summit (1989)
Recent SAARC Summit has been considered as a ‘non-starter’ by some political observers
while for others it has marked a watershed. Explain the two view points (About 250
words).(1995)
Q. Evaluate the economic and strategic dimensions of India’s Look East Policy in the context of the post
Cold War international scenario. (2016)
Look East policy and North East India (2008)






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Vision IAS CURRENT-AFFAIRS-NOVEMBER-2016 xaam.in

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Yojana December 2016 English

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Robot provides rare glimpse of world under Antarctic sea ice

Pink algae, dandelion-like worms and spidery starfish flourish in freezing waters
An underwater robot has captured a rare glimpse beneath the Antarctic sea ice, revealing a colourful world filled with coconut-shaped sponges, dandelion-like worms, pink algae and spidery starfish.
The Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) took footage on a camera attached to a Remotely Operated Vehicle sent down by scientists through a small hole drilled in the ice as they recorded the acidity, oxygen, salinity and temperature of the seawater. “When you think of the Antarctic coastal marine environment, the iconic species such as penguins, seals and whales usually steal the show,” AAD biologist Glenn Johnstone said on Wednesday.
“This footage reveals a habitat that is productive, colourful, dynamic and full of a wide variety of biodiversity, including sponges, sea spiders, urchins, sea cucumbers and sea stars.”
These species, recorded near Australia’s Casey research station, live in water that is -1.5 degrees Celsius year round and covered in 1.5 metres of sea ice for 10 months of the year.
“Occasionally an iceberg may move around and wipe out an unlucky community, but mostly the sea ice provides protection from the storms that rage above, making it a relatively stable environment in which biodiversity can flourish,” he said.
Scientists in Antarctica are working on better understanding of the impact of acidification on Southern Ocean sea-floor communities under increasing carbon dioxide emissions.
Project leader Johnny Stark said a quarter of the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere was absorbed by the ocean, which increases its acidity.
“Carbon dioxide is more soluble in cold water and polar waters are acidifying at twice the rate of tropical or temperate regions. These ecosystems are expected to be among the first impacted from ocean acidification,” he said. — AFP


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