Harappa civilization; All important facts (Prleims 2017 ,Ancient History)

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We have tried to summarize all the important aspects related to Harappa civilization, still if some important points have been leftplease add your inputs in the comments below, we would edit the post and include the mentioned important aspects

About

Flourished during the 2500-2000 BC.
Main sites include:-
  • Kalibangan (Rajasthan)
  • Dholavira (Gujarat)
  • Lothal (Gujarat)
  • Sarkotada (Gujarat)
  • Diamabad (Maharashtra)
  • Alamgirpur (U.P.)
  • Bhagwanpura(Haryana)
  • Banawali (Haryana)
  • Mauda(Jammu)

Architecture

Main features of the architecture includes:-
  • Towns in rectangular grid pattern
  • Roads cutting at right angle
  • Use of well baked burnt mud bricks
  • Use of gypsum mortar
  • Existence of granaries(with air ducts)
  • Prevalence of public baths
  • Advanced covered drainage system

Seals

Main features of seals:-
  • Shape: mostly square together with triangular, rectangular and circular
  • Material used: Steatite(most common) with agate, chert, copper, faience, ivory and gold
  • No evidence of Cow found
  • Pictographic script on seals of animals and mathematical too
  • Used for: commercial purpose, as amulets
  • Examples: Pashupati seals and unicorn seals

Sculptures

Bronze castings
  • Bronze statues were made using ‘Lost wax technique’
  • Examples are bronze dancing girl and bronze bull
Terracotta
  • Use of fire baked clay for making Terracotta sculptures
  • Generally used to make toys, animals, figures, miniature carts etc.
  • Example: mother goddess
Red sandstone
Red sandstone figureof a male torso has been found

Painted potteries

  • Also known as red and black pottery
  • Painting themes: trees, birds, animal figures, geometrical patterns
  • Uses: Storage of grains and water, decorative purposes

Ornaments

  • People were conscious of fashion
  • Materials used: precious metals, gemstones, bones and baked clay
  • Women ornaments: necklace, girdles, earrings and anklets
  • Fabric used: Cotton and wool

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Source: xaam.in

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