Mauryan art and architecture
• To commemorate battle victories
• To propagate imperial sermons
• On the top of the shaft, lay the lotus or bell shaped(Iranian influence) capital with one or more animal figures
• Prevalent in Vedic period, but popularized in Mauryan times
• Used for keeping: relics and ashes
• Medhi and Torana were decorated by wooden structures
• Originally the stupa was made of bricks and surrounded by a wooden railing.
• But later stone was adopted in the place of wood
• The existing stupa at Sanchi encloses the original stupa and has been enlarged and enclosed within the stone railing
o A base (Circular or square)
o A circumambulatory path (Medhi)
o Stone railing with four elegantly carved gateways in the four cardinal directions.
o the Harmika(a square Buddhist railing), on the top of the dome
o From Harmika, rises the shaft that holds the imperial umbrella
o Amravati and Nagarjunakonda in the South
• On these surfaces are carved the favourite symbols of Buddhism:-
o the lotus,
o lion and horse
o and some of the Jataka stories of the previous births of Buddha
• Enlarged in subsequent centuries
• Four ornamental gateways facing four directions were added later
• Enlisted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1989
• Lord Buddha has been depicted symbolically by figures like thrones, wheels and footprints among others.
• It had free standing columns surmounted by lions near the gateways.
• The dome was covered with sculptured panels
• It is made of brick and consists of a circular vedika which depicts Lord Buddha in a human form over an elephant.
• There are beautiful carvings and sculptures which interpret the life of Buddha and his incarnations from the Jataka tales.
• Many works of art were added during the Sunga period
• Railings, posts, gateways and capping stones are all fashioned in beautiful red sandstone
• Many carvings of the Bhurhut are yakshis
• Buddha has been represented in the form of symbols.
• The railing medallions display a variety of lotus design, sometimes incorporating in yaksha busts.
• Some of the other themes include scenes of everyday village life, Lakshmi bathed by elephant, deer, peacock and elephants.
• Palaces of Chandragupta Maurya was inspired by Achaemenid palace at persipolis
• Megasthenes described the palace as greatest creation of mankind
• Use of stone made famous during the times of Ashoka.
• Ashoka’s palace near Patna was a masterpiece enclosed by a high brick wall
• This palace had a three storey wooden pillar
- Sculptures mainly for decoration of stupas in torana and Medhi
- Famous sculptures of Mauryan period includes: Yakshand yakshini
- Yakshini holds a chauri (flywhisk) in the right hand
- Stone elephant at Dhauli
- Image of the elephant emerging from the rock is a most impressive one
- Most famous pottery of Mauryan times known asNorthern Black PolishedWare (NBP).
- NBP ware characterized by Black paint and high quality polish
- It was obviously a more expensive ware than the other varieties
- The caves at Barabar hills near Bodh Gaya are wonderful pieces of Mauryan architecture
- Used as Viharas by Jain and Buddhist monks
- Early caves were used by Jain aajivika sect.
- Characterized by: High quality polished interior walls and decorative gateways
- The caves are simple in plan with plain but highly polished interiors. The only sculpture ornamentation is a relief carving on the doorway of a cave known as Lomas Rishi cave.
- Seven rock-cut caves were excavated during the Mauryan period in the Barabar and Nagarjuni hills near Gaya in Bihar
- 3 rock-cut caves in the Nagarjuni hillswere donated to the Ajivikas.
- Pillars inside these caves appear to be superfluous
Join Our Online Test Series @ Rs 990
Take Test From Mobile , Tablet or Laptop Anytime
100 tests | Online Mode | Instant Result | All India Ranking |
Click Here To Know More : http://imojo.in/test_series_2017