Philosophy Optional UPSC CSE 2014 Question Paper

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Philosophy Optional Paper 1: SECTION-A

 

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Q1. Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each: 10 marksx5=50

  1. How are the synthetic a priori judgements justifiable according to Kant? Explain.
  2. Bring out the significance of language games in Wittgenstein’s theory of meaning.
  3. Explain the significance of ‘bracketing’ in Husserl phenomenology.
  4. Does Leibniz’s theory of pre-established harmony necessarily lead to determinism? Discuss.
  5. How far are Quine’s arguments in Two Dogmas of Empiricism” justified? Discuss.

Q2.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Distinguish between knowledge and belief according to Plato. How is it based on his metaphysics? Explain.20 marks
  2. Explain the doctrine of Cartesian dualism and examine critically arguments in favour of it.15 marks
  3. Evaluate critically Hume’s criticism of theory of causation.15 marks

Q3.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Are empirical statements conclusively verifiable ‘? Discuss the limitations of ‘verification theory of meaning’.20 marks
  2. Why
    does Wittgenstein disagree with Bertrand Russell’s interpretation of
    atomism in the philosophy of Tractatus ? Discuss.15 marks
  3. Are G.E. Moore’s arguments in defence of common sense satisfactory? Give reasons.15 marks

Q4.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Explain
    Kierkegaard’s concept of choice. How does the concept of choice in
    metaethics differ from normative ethics? Explain.20 marks
  2. State
    and evaluate Heidegger’s claim that temporality is the horizon against
    which the being of any entity is understood.15 marks
  3. Explain the significance of Aristotle’s doctrine of form and matter in his theory of causation.15 marks

Philosophy Optional Paper 1: SECTION B

Q5. Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each: 10 marksx5=50

  1. “Limits of knowledge and world are determined by my sense perception.” Discuss this claim of Carvakas.
  2. Explain the epistemological differences between Sautrantika and Vaibhasika schools of Buddhism.
  3. Bring out the significance of the concept of adhydsa in Sankara’s philosophy to develop his metaphysics.
  4. Are the arguments given in favour of existence of prakrti adequate in Sanikhya philosophy? Discuss.
  5. Can arthapatti (postulated) be reduced to anumana (interference)? Discuss it from the Mimamsa point of view.

Q6.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. How is the theory of causation central to the theories of Reality in classical Indian tradition? Discuss.20 marks
  2. Explain the concept of Karma and discuss its various types according to Jain philosophy.15 marks
  3. How is an absence of an object known according to Naiyayikas and Mimanisakas? Discuss.15 marks

Q7.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Bring out the philosophical implications of introducing extraordinary (alaukika) perception in Nyaya philosophy.20 marks
  2. Explain the nature and levels of samprajnata samadhi. How does each level lead more towards asamprajnata samadhi ?15 marks
  3. Examine the Samkhya view on liberation that “the self is neither bound nor liberates, nor does it transmigrate”.15 marks

Q8.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. How does the nature of Brahman differ in the philosophy of Sankara, Ramanuja and Madhya? Discuss critically. 20
  2. How does Nagarjuna explain the concept of Sunyata ?15 marks
  3. How is Sri Aurobindo’s integral yoga an advancement over Patanjala yoga? Discuss.15 marks

Philosophy Optional Paper 2:SECTION—A

Q1.Answer all of the following in about 150 words each: 10 marksx5=50

  1. If caste discrimination has continuity and hierarchy, which principle of justice can dissolve this problem?
  2. How does multiculturalism redefine liberal notions like identity, freedom and equality and reformulate its assumptions?
  3. How do we distinguish Liberal humanism and Marxist humanism?
  4. Explain the significance of John Austin’s theory of sovereignty. How does it differ from that of Hobbes?
  5. Can we say that racial supremacy is the main reason for genocide? Give reasons for your answer.

Q2.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Which theory of punishment, retributive or restorative, do you recommend and why?20 marks
  2. “One is not born a woman, but she becomes a woman.’ Critically comment on it.15 marks
  3. By eliminating alienation can we bring social progress? Critically analyse15 marks

Q3.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Analyse the statement with reasons that “Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely”.20marks
  2. Whig are the basic differences between Gandhi and Ambedkar regarding caste system in India?15 marks
  3. Discuss Amartya Sen’s principle of Niti as a critique of Nyaya.15 marks

Q4.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. “All human rights are centred on individual rights.” Discuss.20 marks
  2. Explain descriptive and normative perspectives on multiculturalism.15 marks
  3. In what sense is democracy a better form of Government than theocracy?15 marks

Philosophy Optional Paper 2:SECTION-B

Q5. Answer all of the following in about 150 words each: 10 marksx5=50

  1. If God is regarded as ‘One’, will it give rise to religious conflicts?
  2. On what grounds, the dichotomy between ‘is’ and ‘ought’ can either be justified or rejected?
  3. What are the arguments given in favour of the immortality of the Soul?
  4. Can pluralist perspective vindicate Absolute Truth?
  5. How do you justify ‘rebirth’ with or without the Soul?

Q6.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. How far can religious morality incorporate individual freedom?20 marks
  2. How do you formulate religious language as non-cognitive?15 marks
  3. Can it be self-contradictory to accept the ‘idea’ of God but deny the ‘existence’ of God?15 marks

Q7.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Is evil reconcilable with the benevolent God?20 marks
  2. Discuss cosmological argument for the existence of God, and show its merits and demerits.15 marks
  3. Compare and contrast the concept of liberalism according to ‘Advaita’ and ‘Visistadavaita’.15 marks

Q8.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Elucidate the status of man in the realm between ‘immanence’ and ‘transcendence’.20 marks
  2. Can reason be used to justify faith?15 marks
  3. Discuss the conflicting nature of religious experiences with special reference to Buddhism and Jainism.15 marks
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