Government Schemes Compilations for CSE 2015:-

1. Nai Roshan Scheme
*The Minister of Minority Affairs recently said that the government has been successfully implementing the “Nai Roshni” Scheme for Leadership Development of Minority Women from 2012-13.
*The scheme aims to empower and instill confidence among minority women by providing knowledge, tools and techniques for interacting with Government systems, Banks and other institutions at all levels.
*The scheme is implemented through Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The scheme is implemented with the involvement of the Gram Panchayat at village level and Local Urban bodies at the District level.

1. Swarajya Se Surajya: Saal Ek Shuruwaat Anek
–Good Governance
§ Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
§ Nurturing of team India through the emphasis on co-operative and competitive federalism
§ Unprecedented 10% increase in the devolution of funds to states
§ More funds to be passed on through reforms in Auction process of coal and other minerals
§ NITI Aayog constituted for National development through genuine Centre-State partnership
§ National Judicial appointments Commission
§ Expenditure management Commission to rationalize Government expenses
§ Bio-metric attendance rolled out for Government employees; resulting in higher productivity and responsiveness
§ Record Parliamentary Efficiency—Number of sittings highest in a decade and 47 bills passed (highest in 6 years)
2. ‘Sarve Santu Niramayah’
Health Assurance to All – Mission Indradhanush
§ Vaccination cover against 7 deadly disease;
§ More than 89 lakh children to be covered by 2020
§ 35 lakh already immunized
3. Our Daughters – Our Pride’
Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
§ Under this scheme a saving account can be opened by the parent or legal guardian of a girl child of less than 10 years of age (born on or after: 02-December-2003; For FY 2014-15) with a minimum deposit of ₹ 1,000/- in any post office or authorised branches of commercial bank.
§ —For the FY 2015-16, Government of India has declared an interest rate of 9.2 per cent on SSY scheme. It was 9.1% for FY 2014-2015; yearly compounded.—this is tax exempted.
§ —The account will remain operative for 21 years from the date of opening of the account or till marriage of the girl child.
§ —Partial withdrawal up to 50 per cent of the account balance is allowed, only once after the girl child completes age of 18 years, for the purpose of financing her higher education.
§ —Per girl child only single account is allowed. Parents can open this account for maximum two girl child. In the event of birth of twin girls in 2nd birth or birth of 3 girl child’s in 1st birth itself, this facility will be extended to third child.
§ —Minimum deposit amount for this account is ₹ 1,000/- and maximum is Rs.1,50,000/- per year. And also money to be deposited for 14 years in this account
§ —Passbook facility is available for the Sukanya Samriddhi Account
§ —From the FY 2015-16, the interest earned in this account will be exempted from taxes.
§ 43 lakh accounts opened in post offices with a total deposit of Rs 562 crore

4. Su-Shasan’ – Transparent and Corruption-free Government
§ Free Allotment and auction related
§ Spectrum Allocation—Most successful ever-yielding Rs. 1.09 lakh crores
§ Mines Act modernized replacing the discretionary mechanism with a transparent and competitive auction process
§ LED bulbs—74% reduction in the prices (rs 310 to Rs. 82) due to transparent procurement
§ Coal Auction and allotment—3.35 lakh crores mobilized from 67 blocks (out of 204 cancelled blocks) over the lifespan of mines.
§ All proceeds in Coal auction and allocation goes to the Coal Bearing states—West bengal; Odisha; Jharkhand; Chattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh
5. Dharti ki Dharohar—
§ Leaving behind a better Planet (environment Sustainablity)
§ Rs 38, ooo crores to be transferred to states for afforestation under the CAMPA Law
§ Campa—Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority
§ GOI has also allocated funds to protect 5- endangered species of the nation:—
1. Dugong (sea cow),
2. Gangetic Dolphin,
3. Great Indian Bustard,
4. Manipur Brow Antler Deer (Sangai) and
5. Wild Water Buffalo
§ In due course, others will be taken up as well
§ The number of tigers increased to 2226
§ 27% increase in the population of Asiatic Lions in Gir
§ 30% subsidy to 2-3-4 wheeler electric commercial vehicles
§ All environmental clearances to be made online.
6. Swacch Bharat
§ A nation-wide people-driven movement initiated
§ Over 58 lakh toilets build in 2014-15
§ Target to build 6.6 Crore toilets by 2019—support for building individual toilets increased to Rs 12, 000 for BPL households
§ All schools across the country to have toilets within one year—4.2 toilets in all
§ In April, 2015 Nadia became the first district in India to become Defacation-free
§ Nadia district could achieve this feat due to its collaborative effort with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and World Bank aimed at construction of toilets across the district.
§ Incidentally, in order to eliminate open defecation from the rural landscape of the state, the Chief Minister of West Bengal Mamata Banerjee formally launched the Mission Nirmal Bangla (MNB) on 30 April 2015 and declared the day as Nirmal Bangla Diwas to mark the occasion.
§ The mission is akin to the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) in its objectives which was launched on 2 October 2014— with the objective of ensuring cleanliness in all the 4041 statutory cities and towns of the country by 2 October 2019 which marks the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
§ Banko Bikano—Bikaner government Open Defecation Scheme. Bikaner builds the largest number of toilets in 2014-15 overcoming all odds like water scarcity and size. It also took the overall sanitation coverage to 80% in just 2 years. Bikaner also has the highest number of Open Defecation Free (ODF) panchayats in Rajasthan. Thus out of 219 Gram Panchayats, 180 are now ODF. –All of these were just achieved in just two years under a special sanitation programme, Banko Bikano (brave and beautiful) supported by the Ministry of Water and Sanitation programme of the World Bank.
—In 2011, the sanitation coverage in the district the second largest in Rajasthan and fourth largest in the country was just 20% which has now touched to 80%.
7. Annadata Sukhi Bhava’ – Farmers’ Welfare
§ Relief to farmers affected by natural calamities
§ Compensation against crop-damage increased by 50%
§ Eligibility for receiving support lowered from 50% to 33%
§ Grain quality norms relaxed for procurement
§ Strong Positions at Global WTO negotiations—Securing our farmers’ long term interests
§ Farm Credit target raised to rs 8.5 lakh crores ensuring convenient access to loans at concessional rates
§ Use of Mobile governance in agriculture given a fillip with more than 550 crore SMS sent to about 1 crore farmers as advisories and information.
§ Loans restructured—and re-scheduled for the affected farmers
§ Actively working with States to Create a Unified National Agriculture Market for a better deal for farmers
§ Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) launched to promote Organic Farming
§ Various steps taken to empower sugarcane farmers—250% increase in the ethanol blending and increase of Import Duty
8. Saksham Bharat
Education and Skills Development—
§ Dedicated ministry for the skill development created
§ National Skill Mission and National Skill Development Policy
§ Skill Certification given Academic Equivalence under School to Skill Programme
§ 76 lakh youth provided Skill Training
Saksham –or Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Boys (2014)
§ Aims at all-round development of Adolescent Boys and make them self-reliant, gender-sensitive and aware citizens, when they grow up.
§ It cover all adolescent boys (both school going and out of school) in the age-group of 11 to 18 years subdivided into two categories, viz. 11-14 & 14–18 years.
Sabla—Or Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (2010)
§ Empowering adolescent girls (Age) of 11–18 years with focus on out-of-school girls by improvement in their nutritional and health status and upgrading various skills like home skills, life skills and vocational skills.
§ Implemented in 205 districts across the country in a pilot basis
§ It is being implemented using the platform of Integrated Child Development Services Scheme. The scheme has two major components namely nutrition and non-nutrition component.
§ Nutrition is being given in the form of Take Home Ration or Hot Cooked Meal for 11 to14 years out of school girls and 14 to18 years to All AGs, out of school and in school girls.
§ In the Non Nutrition component, the out of school Adolescent Girls 11 to18 years are being provided IFA supplementation, Health check-up and Referral services, Nutrition and Health Education, Counselling and guidance on family welfare, Adolescent Reproductive Sexual Health (ARSH), child care practices and Life Skill Education and vocational training. A sum of Rs. 650 crores including Rs. 65 crore for North Eastern Areas has been allocated for Sabla for 2013-14.
§ Merged Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls (NPAG) and Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY).

9. Neeranchal
§ To give an added impetus to watershed development in the country, a new programme called “Neeranchal” with an initial outlay of ` 2,142 crores in the current financial year.
§ Pashmina Promotion Programme (P-3) and a programme for the development of other crafts of Jammu & Kashmir is also to be started. For this a sum of Rs. 50 crores is set aside

10. Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission
§ Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission will be launched to deliver integrated project based infrastructure in the rural areas.
§ The scheme will also include development of economic activities and skill development.
§ The preferred mode of delivery would be through PPPs while using various scheme funds.
§ It is based on the example of Gujarat that has demonstrated successfully the Rurban development model of urbanization of the rural areas, through which people living in the rural areas can get efficient civic infrastructure and associate services.

11. One Rank One Pension Scheme
§ One pension scheme for all military personnel in the current session of the Parliament.
§ This is a scheme which will ensure that the soldiers of the same rank and also the same length of service will get the same pension, irrespective of their retirement date.
§ In simple words, it requires equal pension for those who retired in one particular year; as those who retires in another year at the same position, and for the same duration of services rendered. Also the difference in pension of present and past pensioners in the same rank occurs on account of the number of increments earned by the defence personnel in that rank.
§ Till now there were no such rules; While every pay commission bumps the salaries of government servants, pensions of ex-servicemen remain the same.
§ Any hike in the pension scheme will thus automatically be passed to the past pensioners
Implication of such a scheme– The launch of this scheme is expected to push up the defence expenditure of the Centre’s defense payments by a record 40%; and posing fresh challenges to keep the Centre’s fiscal deficit within the budgetary target of 4.1 % of the GDP.
Why it is being demanded—
—Civilian employees retire at 60; while military personnel retire much earlier based on ranks when family liability is maximum and also second option for career is impossible
–Most of the officers retire at early 50’s,
—Terms and conditions of military service is much tougher than civilian employees
—Soldiers undergo hardships postings; with risk of life and restriction towards fundamental rights
—Successive pay commissions have widened the gap between veterans who have retired earlier and those who retire late

**Till now, the scheme is yet to be rolled out.

12. AMRUT—
—Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban transformation
§ To recast the country’s urban landscape, the Centre has given nod to the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), with an outlay of Rs 50,000 crore.
§ AMRUT is the new avatar of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). But in a significant departure from the earlier mission, the Centre will not appraise individual projects.
§ Under this mission, 10% of the budget allocation will be given to states and union territories as incentive based on the achievement of reforms during the previous year.
§ AMRUT, which seeks to lay a foundation to enable cities and towns to eventually grow into smart cities, will be implemented in 500 locations with a population of one lakh and above—-It would cover some cities situated on the stems of main rivers; a few state capitals and some important cities located in hill areas; islands and tourist centres.
§ Under this mission the states gets the flexibility of designing schemes based on the needs of identified cities and in their execution and monitoring.
§ States will only submit their state annual action Plans to the centre for broad concurrence based on which funds will be released. But, in a significant departure from JNNURM, the central government will not appraise individual projects.
§ AMRUT adopts a project approach to ensure basic infrastructure services relating to water supply, sewerage, storm-water drains, transportation and development of green spaces and parks with special provision for meeting the needs of children.
§ States will only submit state annual action Plans to the centre for broad concurrence based on which funds will be released.
§ But, in a significant departure from JNNURM, the central government will not appraise individual projects.
Central assistance will be to the extent of 50% of project cost for cities and towns with a population of up to 10 lakhs and one-third of the project cost for those with a population of above 10 lakhs.

13. Education Schemes of the GOI
(a) Swayam—Leveraging Mass open online courses to enable Mass Online Education
· Study Webs of Active –Learning for Young Aspiring Minds
· Programme of the Ministry of Human resources, GOI
· At least one crore students are expected to benefit in 2 to 3 years through this initiative
· All courses would be offered free of cost under this programme however fees would be levied in case learner requires certificate.
· Professors of centrally funded institutions like IITs, IIMs, central universities will offer online courses , with the collaboration of foreign Universities as well
· Subjects offered– engineering education, social science, energy, management, basic sciences.
(b) Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya for Teacher’s training programme—
· Launched to raise the quality of training
(c) UDAAN—Scheme dedicated to the development of Girl Child Education
· UDAAN is an initiative by CBSE to enable disadvantaged girl students to transit from school to post-school professional education specially in Science and Mathematics
· support 1000 disadvantaged girls per year and provide them free online resources in Class XI and Class XII
· Selection based on merit and economic criterion
· Those selected will be provided tablets that have preloaded content, in addition to regular tutorials, assessments and study materials, along with regular tracking, monitoring and feedback forms to parents.
(d) National e-Library—National access to educational material
(e) GIAN—Global initiative of Academic Network
· Bringing eminent faculty from across the globe to teach in India and augment teacher-student interation
· Avenues for possible collaborative research

(f) Five New IITs and Six New IIMS to be set with a number of Institutes specialized in different fields and Four New AIIMS in India
(g) National Scholarship Portal—Single platform for students to avail the Central government Schemes
(h) Pradhan Manntri Vidyalaya Karyakram—Student loans will be enabled under this programme
(i) Saksham—
· scholarship for differently-abled children by AICTE, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India that aims to award 1000 scholarships per annum to differently abled students to pursue technical education based on merit in the qualifying examination to pursue technical education
· The scholarship amount under the scheme is Rs 30,000 or tuition fees and Rs 2,000 per month for contingency allowance for 10 months.
(j) Pandit Din Dayal Upadhyay Grammen Kaushal Yojana—Youth Employment scheme
· TO provide on-the-job training
· It was launched by on 25 September 2014 by Union Minsters Nitin Gadkari and Venkaiah Naidu on the occasion of 98th birth anniversary of Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay. It aims to target youth, under the age group of 18–35 years
· To train 10 lakh rural youth in 3 years
(k) Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana—
· Plan outlay of rs 1500 cr
· skill training of youth (flagship programme) to be implemented by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). The scheme will cover 24 lakh persons.
· Skill training would be done based on the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) and industry led standards.
· Under the scheme, a monetary reward is given to trainees on assessment and certification by third party assessment bodies. The average monetary reward would be around Rs.8000 per trainee
· Training would include soft skills, personal grooming, behavioral change for cleanliness, good work ethics.
· Skill training Development Management System (SDMS) would be put in place to verify and record details of all training centres a certain quality of training locations and xcourses.
· Biometric system and video recording of the training process
· robust Grievance Redressal mechanism would be put in place to address grievances

Important features of the railway Budget 2015
Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu on Thursday (26th of Feb ) presenting the NM govt first Full year railway budget left passenger fares untouched and also steered clear of announcing any new trains. Instead he launched a slew of measures aimed at making train travel easier, more comfortable and safer.

The Railway Budget will be a part of the several campaigns initiated by Narendra Modi like Swatchh bharat, Make in India and Digital India. It is not a document in isolation.

1. Cleanliness: Make Swatch rail Force behind the Swatch Bharat initiative. The railway minister announced the creation of a separate department for cleanliness. Professional agencies would be engaged and adequate training would be provided to the railway staff; setting up waste-to-energy conversion plans. Build new toilets covering 650 additional stations and replacing existing toilets with 17, 388 bio toilets. Bring out design for vacuum toilets in the upcoming 6 months; Extend built-in dustbins for to non-AC coaches.
2. Be Linen: The National Institute of Fashion technology or NIFt will design bed linen for railways. Online booking of disposable bed rolls will be made available soon.
3. Helplines: The government has set up two 24*7 helplines. Commuters would have to dial toll free numbers 138 for travel related queries and 182 for security related queries. Mobile applications to redress railway related complaints to be developed soon.
4. Ticketing: You will be issued an unreserved ticket quickly. The minister announced Operation Five Minutes for unreserved ticketing. This would be achieved by providing multiple options for ticketing like hot buttons, coin vending machines, single destination teller, multi-lingual portal, unreserved tickets on smart phones among other things. Also concessional e-tickets for differently abled persons, unreserved tickets for smartphones; automatic ticket vending machines with smart cards and currency options. Integrated ticketing system on the lines of railway cum road tickets.
5. Surveillance Cameras: For the safety of women commuters, surveillance cameras would be installed on select routes and ladies compartments of suburban railway lines
6. Mobile phone charging: All general class compartments will have mobile phone charging points. The number of such points would increase in sleeper class too.
7. Station Facilities: 200 more stations added to ADARSH STATION Scheme. Wi-Fi zones to be extended to more stations, facility of self-operated lockers to be made available at stations, online booking of wheel chair on payment basis for senior citizens, patients and differently abled passengers would be made possible through ITCTC for select stations.
8. Increasing Train Speed: Speed of 9 railway corridors to be increased from the existing 130 kmph to 160 and 200 kmph respectively so that inter-metro journeys like Delhi-Kolkata and Delhi-Mumbai can be completed overnight.
9. Catering: e-catering in 108 trains to be introduced from January 2016. Ordering food through IRCTC website at the time of booking the tickets; setting up base kitchen in the specific divisions to be run by reputed agencies for serving quality food; expansion of water vending machines in selected stations are among the other facilities declared.
10. Comfortable Travel: NID approached to design user friendly ladders to climb the upper berths; more reservation for senior citizens to the lower berths; TTEs to be instructed to help senior citizens, pregnant women, and differently abled persons. Middle bay coaches to be reserved for women and senior citizens; Provision of Rs 120 crore for lifts and escalators (76% higher); Newly manufactured coaches to be Brailley enabled; building wider entrances for differently abled persons; allocation for passenger amenities up by 67%.
11. Financing cell in the railway Board: It will seek advices from experts in the railways field and helps in mobilising the resources to meet the budgetary requirements.
12. Foreign Rail Technology Cooperation Scheme: The Scheme aims to achieve the higher quality service for the nation. This is being launched because Technology intensive and complex projects like speed raising and station redevelopment require lot of handholding by a specialized agency in terms of preparatory work, exploring technology options and managing bid processes.
13. Gandhi Circuit: It has been decided to promote tourism in the country through Gandhi Circuit. Indian Railways will join this effort through Incredible Rail for Incredible India. The Gandhi circuit will be set up by the Indian Railways Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) to mark the 100 years of the return of Mahatma Gandhi from South Africa to India.
14. Kisan Yatra: It is a special travel scheme for farmers to visit farming and marketing information centres.

· Setting up ‘Kayakalp’ to help in Technology Up gradation: It is an innovation council proposed to be setup. It will be set up for the purpose of business re-engineering and introducing a spirit of innovation in Railways:
Latest Update (20/03/2015) : Ratan Tata to head the Council. The purpose of the council is to recommend innovative methods and process for the improvement, betterment and transformation of the Indian Railways. The Council

· MUTP-III project for Mumbai. (Mumbai urban Transport Project)
· Malviya Chair at IIT BHU for Railway technology excellence: Varanasi This chair will help in the development of new materials used in all assets of the Railways
· Train Protection Warning Systems and Anti colliding system to be developed by RDSO
· Automatic Freight Scheme to be launched in Pan India.
· 8.5 lakh crore rupees to be invested in the railways in the next 5 years
· Operating ratio proposed at 88.5%. Best ever in 9 years.
· Increase track length by 20 per cent and passenger carrying capacity from 21 to 30 million.
· Facility of self operated lockers at stations

Safety Apps: (Source: The Hindu Dated: 27/02/2015)
1. Mobile App being developed to redress complains. Facility to start from march 1 in the Northern Railway
2. Radio Based Signaling: Design project to be taken up wih IIT Kanpur for alerts at unmanned level crossing
3. Priority to Women: Nirbhaya Fund to be used for augmenting the security of women passengers.
4. For a safe Ride:
(a) Five year safety plan to be framed by June 2015;
(b) Recommendations of the Kakodkar Safety Committee: to be examined by April
©, Surveillance cameras: In select mainline coaches and women’s coaches without intruding into privacy
(d) Geo spatial technology: to be used to provide audio visual warning to the road users at unmanned level crossings
(e ) Train collision Avoidance Systems: to be installed in select routes.

**KATRA-Line opened for Vaishno Devi pilgrims and New SIX Pilgrim trains launched
Civil Aviation Schemes
· Construction of New Integrated terminal buildings at Mohali; Tirupati; Bikaner; Khajuraho at completion stage
· Terminals at Kadapa and Bikaner completed
· Air India joined prestigious Star Alliance, one of the largest Air alliances
· Safer Skies—FAA has upgraded India’s International Aviation Safety Audit (IASA) to a higher safety rating; enabling and more flights
· To promote regional connectivity, up-gradation of airports at Hubli; Belgaum; Kishangarh; Tezu and Jharsuguda commenced
· Sagarmala Project Launched for the Comprehensive port-led economic development through development of vibrant Coastal communities

What is Project Sagarmala:
The Sagarmala project seeks to develop a string of ports around India’s coast. The prime objective of the Sagarmala project is to promote port-led direct and indirect development and to provide infrastructure to transport goods to and from ports quickly, efficiently and cost-effectively.
Therefore, the Sagarmala Project shall, inter alia, aim to develop access to new development regions with intermodal solutions and promotion of the optimum modal split, enhanced connectivity with main economic centres and beyond through expansion of rail, inland water, coastal and road services.
· China’s String of Pearls aims to surround India by developing ports in neighbor countries and possible convert them in military base at later
· But, Project Sagarmala only aims to modernize the existing India’s maritime infrastructure by modernizing the existing major ports of India and setting up new ports as well.
· A key element of the project is the setting up of some 10 coastal economic regions (CERs), which will be the focal point for economic development along India’s vast coastline of over 7,000km
The Sagarmala will address challenges by focusing on THREE pillars of development, namely—
Þ Supporting and enabling Port-led Development through appropriate policy and institutional interventions and providing for an institutional framework for ensuring inter-agency and ministries/departments/states’ collaboration for integrated development,
Þ Port Infrastructure Enhancement, including modernization and setting up of new ports, and
Þ Efficient evacuation to and from the hinterland

The main blueprint for the project: was set up in 2003 by the then PM of India A B Vajpayee. He had proposed the project with the following features:
· Setup Sagarmala Development Authority (Similar to National highway Authority of India)
· Financing: Maritime Development Cess (5 paise/kg on cargo)
· Will improve ports, shipping industry, inland water transport and coastal shipping
· PPP and FDI to gather more investment
Two Initiatives by NDA Government
Ø Project Sethusamudram:
To link Palk Bay with Gulf of Mannar and facilitate maritime trade through it
Ø Project Sagarmala
To modernize minor and major ports of India + setup new ports. ($22 billion USD
Steps taken:
1. Shipping ministry formed new Committee to setup two major ports
a. Sagar, West Bengal.
b. Dugarajapatnam, Andhra Pradesh Simandhra.
2. Together they’ll add new port capacity of 100 MTPA.
3. Established Indian maritime university @Chennai, with campuses in: Kochi, Kandla, Kolkata, Mumbai to address the manpower issue.
4. 100% FDI permitted for port development projects (automatic route), along with reliefs in Income tax for such investors.
5. 12th FYP aims to add ~2500 MTPA port capacity.
6. PPP projects approved at Mumbai, Ennore, Kandla and Kolkata ports DBFOT Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer basis.
7. Released guidelines on New Land Policy for Major Ports to help them leverage their land resources for commercial advantage.
8. Ford signed a MoUs to export the cars from Chennai plant via Ennore Port for next ten years.
9. Tadadi, Karnataka: proposal to setup a new Greenfield Seaport here.
10. 4th Container Terminal at JN Port
11. Automatic Identification System (AIS) system and Vessel Traffic Management Services (VTMS) in all the Ports.
12. Statutory body: DG Shipping to implement Merchant Shipping Act and perform regulatory functions (Like DGCA in aviation sector)
Key features of the Project:
§ Cargo Movement—(a) Simplifying procedures used at ports for cargo movement and (b) Promotes usage of electronic channels for information exchange leading to quick, efficient, hassle-free and seamless cargo movement.
§ Strive to ensure sustainable development of the population living in the Coastal Economic Zone (CEZ)—–This would be done by synergizing and coordinating with State Governments and line Ministries of Central Government through their existing schemes and programmes such as those related to community and rural development, tribal development and employment generation, fisheries, skill development, tourism promotion etc.
§ A National Sagarmala Apex Committee (NSAC) is envisaged for overall policy guidance and high level coordination, and to review various aspects of planning and implementation of the plan and projects.
§ The NSAC shall be chaired by the Minister in-charge of Shipping, with Cabinet Ministers from stakeholder Ministries and Chief Ministers/Ministers in-charge of ports of maritime states as members.

Shipping II—
Jal Marg Vikas project Launched for the Promotion of transportation and Inland waterways down the Ganges (Allahabad to Haldia ) National Waterway 1
· MoU Signed with Iran for the development of the Chabar Port and access to Afghanistan and Central Asian states
· Growth rate of cargo throughout in ports doubled from 4% to 8%

(a) Bharat Mala Project– a road built along India’s vast west-toeast land border, from Gujarat to Mizoram, at a cost of around Rs 14,000 crore, and linking that to a road network in coastal states, from Maharashtra to Bengal. This is a road network that will, as it were, garland the territory of India. Hence the name.
· The government hopes to finish the project in five years.
· The project will start from Gujarat and Rajasthan, move to Punjab and then cover the entire string of Himalayan states – Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand – and then portions of borders of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alongside Terai, and move toSikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and right up to the Indo-Myanmar border in Manipur and Mizoram.
· Strategic Component— India’s attempted answer to improve reach and connectivity in border areas, right across a large part of which lies China’s impressive road infrastructure.
· Supplies to India’s troops as well as military transport currently happen through poor quality roads. Bharat Mala is designed to address that.
· Economic Component– borders will open up and border trade will start, and therefore it’s India’s interest to massively upgrade its border roads infrastructure.
· Much of the new road construction will happen in mountain states where connectivity and economic activity is low.
· Main challenges—Land acquisition and Environment Sustainability

· Tax exemption limit raised to 2.5 lakh
· Tax exemption limit raised for senior citizens to Rs 3 lakh
· Rs 1.5 lakh – increased investment limit
· Rs 2 lakh – revised housing loan rebate.

Sevo Parmo Dharam
Relief in Times of need
(a) Operation maître—15, 500 Indians and 170 foreign nationals evacuated from 33 countries in Nepal earthquake
(b) Operation Raahat—Rescued 4700 Indians and 1900 foreign Nationals from 48 countries in yemen
(c) Being there for fellow Indians in distress—Evacuation of over 1000 Indians students from Ukraine; 3300 from Libya and 7000 Indians (including nurses) from iran

GyanYug—Science, technology and Innovation
· First country to succeed in MARS Mission in the first attempt
· Successful experimental flight of the next generation launch vehicle and testing of the Indegenous cryogenic Engine technology (GSAT MK III)
· GAGAN—Indian Satellite based Navigation services for civil Aviation operationalized (Third Country in the world)
· Research and Development Based
(a) Atal innovation Mission (AIM)— network of academic and scientific institutions to inculcate innovation in young minds and to fund start ups across India.
This new Scheme will have provide funds to a network of institutions to conduct research on innovations that can improve economic growth and job creation
(b) SETU—Self Employment Talent Utilization –to be administered by the NITI Aayog; It has come as a boon for young entrepreneurial minds who are struggling to plug in the gaps of cash
For startups : It aims to create around 100,000 jobs through start-ups
Also India is in the fourth position start-up ecosystem in the world after US, UK and Israel.
Power Sector
· Civil Nuclear Co-operation signed: Australia, Canada, France, Russia and USA
· Coal production recorded increase of 3.2 crore tons
· Lowest ever energy deficit—3.6%
· Din Dayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana— aimed to provide continuous power supply to rural India; Rs 75,600 crore for rural electrification under this scheme.
The scheme will replace the existing Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY)

Urban Areas—Integrated power Development Scheme— Strengthening of sub-transmission and distribution network in the urban areas; Metering of distribution transformers /feeders / consumers in the urban areas; and IT enablement of distribution sector and strengthening of distribution network.

New Gov Schemes (Relevant for UPSC 2015 )

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on 

Teachers and Teaching (PMMMNMTT):

 Launched in March 2015.
 Concerned Ministry: Ministry of Human Resource Development
About Scheme:
 Under the scheme Government will set up 50 Centres of Excellence for Curriculum and Pedagogy with necessary emphasis on Maths and Science.
 It is mandated to ensure a coordinated approach so as to holistically address the various shortcomings relating to teachers and teaching across the educational spectrum ranging from school education to higher education including technical education; using the best international practices for excellence.
 It will also empower teachers and faculty through training, re-training, refresher and orientation programmes in generic skills, pedagogic skills, discipline specific content upgradation, ICT and technology enabled training and other appropriate interventions.
 The various components of PMMMNMTT:
  1. 1. setting up 30 Schools of Education,
  2. 2. 50 Centres of Excellence for Curriculum and Pedagogy,
  3. 3. Two Inter University Centres,
  4. 4. National Resource Centre,
  5. 5. Five Centres of Academic Leadership and Educational Management,
  6. 6. Subject Based Networks and Workshops and Seminars,
 This will strengthen teachers, and in turn will improve the understanding of the students to grasp basic concepts and help them learn better.
Unnat Bharat Abhiyan:
 Launched in December 2014.
 Concerned Ministry: Ministry of Human Resource Development
About Scheme:
 The program was launched with an aim to connect institutions of higher education, including Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and Indian Institutes of Science Education & Research (IISERs) etc. with local communities to address the development challenges through appropriate technologies so as to ensure sustainability.
 The objectives of Unnat Bharat Abhiyan are broadly two-fold:
  1. Building institutional capacity in Institutes of higher education in research & training relevant to the needs of rural India.
  2. Provide rural India with professional resource support from institutes of higher education ,especially those which have acquired academic excellence in the field of Science, Engineering & Technology and Management.
 Under this programme, 132 villages have been identified for intervention by the following 16 institutes of higher education so far.
 Based on area/village identification, the Unnat Bharat Cells in the Institutes will develop strategies for problem and resource mapping and developing a holistic development plan with clear inputs and measurable outcomes and time lines.
Various issues that can be undertaken are listed as follows:
 Natural resource management (water and watersheds, soil, bio-diversity),
 Economic Productivity through appropriate technologies for sustainable agriculture and agro-processing,
 Entrepreneurship and Skill development through multipurpose service-cum-training centers in rural areas,
 Technological and managerial interventions on developing Physical Infrastructure (rural housing, drinking water, improved sanitation, low-cost toilets, renewable energy, rural and regional plans.)
 Rural electronics and IT to provide access to technology in the areas of health, sanitation, sustainable agriculture, education watershed management, etc.
 Social and institutional infrastructure development such as Health, Education, Public Transport, PDS. etc.
Other Initiatives in Education sector by Ministry of Human Resource Development are:
 A specific “Swachh Vidyalaya” campaign has been rolled out which will ensure that a functional toilet is available in every school before 15th August 2015.
 UDAAN is an initiative of the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) to enable disadvantaged girl students and other students from SC/ST & minorities to transit from school to post-school professional education especially in Science and Math. It aims to reduce the quality gap between school education and engineering education entrance systems by focusing on the three dimensions- curriculum design, transaction and assessment. It will do this by enriching and supplementing teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics at Senior Secondary level. The CBSE will provide free and online resources to the entire student population with special incentives and support to a thousand selected disadvantaged girls per year.
 UGC has formulated the scheme Swami Vivekananda Single Girl Child Scholarship for Research in Social Sciences the scheme under which 300 scholars would be provided Junior Research Fellowship @ Rs. 8,000/–10,000/- per month, and will be implemented from academic year 2014-15.
 The AICTE scheme PRAGATI (Providing Assistance for Girls’ Advancement in Technical Education Initiative) envisages selection of one girl per family where family income is less than 6 lakhs / annum on merit at the qualifying examination to pursue technical education. The scheme is to be implemented by the authorized admission centre of respective State Governments. 4000 girls are expected to get benefit of scholarships available per annum. The scholarship amount is Rs. 30,000 or tuition fees or actual whichever is less and Rs. 2000 / month for ten months as contingency allowance.
 AICTE has decided to award 1000 scholarships per annum under Saksham to differently abled students to pursue technical education based on merit in the qualifying examination to pursue technical education. The scholarship amount would be Rs. 30000 or tuition fees or actual whichever is less and Rs. 2000 / month for ten months as contingency allowance.
 The UGC has launched a special scholarship Scheme for students of North East Region Ishan Uday from the academic session 2014-15. The Scheme envisages grant of 10,000 scholarships to students from North East Region whose parental income is below Rs. 4.5 lakh per annum and would be provided scholarship ranging from Rs. 3,500 to 5,000 per month for studying at under graduate level in Colleges/Universities of the country.
 Ishān Vikās is a comprehensive plan to bring selected students from the school and college levels from the North-Eastern states into close contact with the IITs, NITs and IISERs during their vacation periods. A typical visit is envisaged for a period of ten days to one of these institutions, in the form of either an exposure or an Internship programmed. Each school will send one teacher to accompany a group of about 32 students of class IX and X and 8 teachers. The college students would be organized in two groups in summer and in winter, consisting of 32 students each group. About 2016 college students and 504 teachers from N-E will be visiting premier Institutes, like IIT/NIT/IISERs in an academic year.
 Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat initiative was launched on 26th August, 2014, to focus on the quality of foundational learning so that each child attains appropriate learning levels in classes I and II for reading, writing language comprehension and numeracy. Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat is a sub-component of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA) and is being rolled out by 17 States and UTs.
 Under SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active-Learning for Young Aspiring Minds) Programmed Professors of centrally funded institutions like IITs, IIMs, Centrally universities will offer online courses to citizens of our country. All courses will be made available free of cost for learning. In case the learner requires a Verified Certificate, a small fee will be applicable.
 Work has commenced on “Shaala Darpan” to ensure that from next academic year, parents of students of Government and Government aided schools can through a mobile application access updates on their child’s progress regarding attendance, assignments, and achievements.
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Koushalya Yojana:
 Launched in September, 2014.
 Concerned Ministry: Ministry of Rural Development
 There are several challenges preventing India’s rural poor from competing in the modern market, such as the lack of formal education and marketable skills. DDU-GKY bridges this gap by funding training projects benchmarked to global standards, with an emphasis on placement, retention, career progression and foreign placement.
 Under the scheme, Rs. 1 lakh per person will be provided, depending on the duration of the project and whether the project is residential or non-residential. DDU-GKY funds projects with training duration from 576 hours (3 months) to 2304 hours (12 months).
 The scheme has replaced the earlier scheme Aajeevika Skill Development Program.
Features of the scheme are as follows:
 Demand led skill training at no cost to the rural poor
 Mandatory coverage of socially disadvantaged groups (SC/ST 50%; Minority 15%; Women 33%)
 Pioneers in providing incentives for job retention, career progression and foreign placements
 Post-placement support, migration support and alumni network
 Guaranteed Placement for at least 75% trained candidates
 Nurturing new training service providers and developing their skills
 Greater emphasis on projects for poor rural youth in Jammu and Kashmir (HIMAYAT), the North-East region and 27 Left-Wing Extremist (LWE) districts (ROSHINI)
 All program activities are subject to Standard Operating Procedures that are not open to interpretation by local inspectors. All inspections are supported by geo-tagged, time stamped videos/photographs.
Nai Manzil:
 Launched in 2014
 Concerned Ministry: Ministry of Minority Affairs
 To mainstream Madarsa students through bridge course with the help of reputed Academic Institutions.
 To be implemented by Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF).
Following Five Institutions have been selected to provide bridge course to 3000 students :
 Aligarh Muslim university (AMU)
 Jamia Milia Islamia University
 National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
 Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)
 Maula Azad National Urdu University (MANUU)
USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills and Training in 
Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development):
 Launched in May 2015, in Varanasi.
 Nodal Agency: Ministry of Minority Affairs
 The Scheme aims at upgrading Skills and Training in preservation of traditional Ancestral Arts/Crafts of minorities.
4 Components of the scheme:
 Up-gradation of Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts through Institutions.
 USTTAD Fellowship for Research and Development.
 Support to Craft museum for curating traditional arts/ crafts.
 Support to minority craftsmen/artisans for marketing Nationally/ Internationally through Export Promotion Councils.
Other Initiatives:
Maulana Azad National Skills Academy (MANAS) for upgrading entrepreneurial skills of minority youth. and ‘Cyber Gram’ to impart training for Digital Literacy. Training of 1,70,005 minority students has been sanctioned upto 31.12.2014.
Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna (PMJDY)
 Launched on 28th August, 2014
 Nodal Agency: Ministry of Finance
 Scheme was launched with a revised target of 10 crore bank accounts by 26th January 2015.
Payment solutions are an important part of financial inclusion for which a new card payment scheme known as RuPay Card has been in operation since 8th May, 2014.
Banks have further been asked to provide universal coverage across all the six lakh villages of the country by providing at least one Basic Banking Account, per household, with indigenous RuPay Debit Card having inbuilt accident insurance of ‘ 1.00 lakh and life insurance cover of ‘ 30,000.
The RuPay Card is on par with other debit cards. These two schemes are complementary and will enable achievement of multiple objectives such as financial inclusion, insurance penetration and digitalization.
Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana:
 Launched on 9th May 2015
 Nodal Agency: Ministry of Finance
 Under PMSBY, the risk coverage will be Rs. 2 lakh for accidental death and full disability and Rs. 1 lakh for partial disability. The Scheme will be available to people in the age group 18 to 70 years with a bank account, from where the premium would be collected through the facility of “auto-debit”.
 The scheme will be offered by all Public Sector General Insurance Companies and all other insurers who are willing to join the scheme and tie-up with banks for this purpose.
 Various Ministries can co-contribute premium for various categories of their beneficiaries from their budget or from Public Welfare Fund created in this budget from unclaimed money. This will be decided separately during the year. Common Publicity Expenditure will be borne by the Government.
Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY)
 Under PMJJBY, annual life insurance of Rs. 2 lakh would be available on the payment of premium of Rs. 330 per annum by the subscribers. The PMJJBY will be made available to people in the age group of 18 to 50 years having a bank account from where the premium would be collected through the facility of “auto-debit”.
Atal Pension Yojana (APY):
 Under the APY, subscribers would receive a fixed minimum pension of Rs. 1000 per month, Rs. 2000 per month, Rs. 3000 per month, Rs. 4000 per month, Rs. 5000 per month, at the age of 60 years, depending on their contributions, which itself would vary on the age of joining the APY.
 The Central Government would also co-contribute 50 percent of the total contribution or Rs. 1000 per annum, whichever is lower, to each eligible subscriber account, for a period of 5 years, that is, from 2015-16 to 2019-20, to those who join the NPS before 31st December, 2015 and who are not members of any statutory social security scheme and who are not Income Tax payers.
 The pension would also be available to the spouse on the death of the subscriber and thereafter, the pension corpus would be returned to the nominee.
 The minimum age of joining APY is 18 years and maximum age is 40 years. The benefit of fixed minimum pension would be guaranteed by the Government.
Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
 Launched on 2nd October, 2014
 The scheme aims at attaining an Open Defecation Free India by 2nd October, 2019, by providing access to toilet facilities to all rural households and initiating Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities in all Gram Panchayats to promote cleanliness.
 Under SBM(G), the incentives for Individual Household latrines (IHHLs) have been enhanced from Rs.10,000/- to Rs. 12,000/- to provide for water availability. The part funding from Mahatma Gandhi NREGA for the payment of incentives for the construction of Individual House Hold Latrines (IHHLs) is now paid from the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
 Initiatives by the Government in this regard include media campaigns, provisioning for incentivizing ASHAs and Anganwadi workers for promoting sanitation, guidelines to involve Corporates in Sanitation sector through Corporate Social Responsibilities, strengthening online monitoring system for entering households level data gathered from the Baseline Survey.
Sardar Patel Urban Housing Mission
 Announced by Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation and the Urban Development Minister M. Venkaiah Naidu in October 2014.
 Mission will ensure 30 million houses by 2022, mostly for the economically weaker sections and low income groups.
 To be built through public-private-partnership, interest subsidy and increased flow of resources to the housing sector, these houses are also aimed at creating slum free cities across the country.
 It will cover urban poor living in slums, urban homeless and new migrants to urban areas in search of shelter. It would cover metros, small towns and all urban areas.
Women and Children
Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Programme
 Launched on 22nd January, 2015 at Panipat, Haryana
 Nodel Agency: Ministry of Women and Child Development
 Scheme has been introduced for survival, protection & education of the girl child.
 It aims to address the issue of declining Child Sex Ratio (CSR) through a mass campaign across the country targeted at changing societal mindsets & creating awareness about the criticality of the issue.
 The Scheme will have focussed intervention & multi-sectoral action in 100 districts with low Child Sex Ratio. The districts with Child Sex Ratio below the National average of 918 (87 districts), above National average of 918 but showing declining trend (8 districts), Child Sex Ratio above National average of 918 and showing improving trend (5 districts).
 It is a joint initiative of Ministry of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development.
Sansad Aadarsh Gram Yojana:
 Launched on 11th October 2014, on the occasion of birth anniversary of Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan aims to keep the soul of rural India alive while providing its people with quality access to basic amenities and opportunities to enable them to shape their own destiny.
 Nodal Agency: Ministry of Rural Development
 Under the scheme each Member of Parliament will take the responsibility of developing physical and institutional infrastructure in three villages by 2019.
 Inspired by the principles and values of Mahatma Gandhi, the Scheme places equal stress on nurturing values of national pride, patriotism, community spirit, self-confidence and on developing infrastructure.
 It envisages integrated development of the selected village across multiple areas such as agriculture, health, education, sanitation, environment, livelihoods etc.
 It also aims at instilling certain values, such as people’s participation, Antyodaya, gender equality, dignity of women, social justice, spirit of community service, cleanliness, eco-friendliness, maintaining ecological balance, peace and harmony, mutual cooperation, self-reliance, local self-government, transparency and accountability in public life, etc., in the villages and their people so that they get transformed into models for others.
 The MP would be free to identify a suitable gram panchayat for being developed as Adarsh Gram, other than his/her own village or that of his/her spouse. There are 2,65,000 gram panchayats in India.
 The scheme will be implemented through a village development plan that would be prepared for every identified gram panchayat with special focus on enabling every poor household to come out of poverty.
 The constituency fund, MPLADS, would be available to fill critical financing gaps.
 The planning process in each village will be a participatory exercise coordinated by the District Collector. The MP will play an active facilitating role in this exercise.
 At the national level, a separate, real time web based monitoring system will be put in place for the scheme covering all aspects and components.
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana:
 Announced in Budget 2015-16
 Nodal Agency: Ministry of Agriculture
 Identifying the need to provide assured irrigation to mitigate risk to the farmer since bulk of the farm lands are rainfed and depend on monsoon, Government in Budget 2015-16 proposed this scheme to facilitate access to irrigation.
 A sum of Rs.1,000 crores is being set aside for this scheme.
Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana
 Announced in Budget 2015-16
 Nodal Agency: Ministry of Agriculture
 The scheme is aimed at irrigating the field of every farmer and improving water use efficiency to provide `Per Drop More Crop’.
 Traditional methods of farming such as Organic farming will be encouraged so as to improve soil health.
 Soil Health Card Scheme has also been launched to improve soil fertility on a sustainable basis.
 Launched in March 2015
 Nodal Agency: Ministry of Tourism
The Ministry of Tourism has launched two new schemes:
 Swadesh Darshan for Integrated Development of Tourist Circuits around Specific Themes.
 National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual Augmentation Drive(PRASAD) to beautify and improve the amenities and infrastructure at pilgrimage centres of all faiths.
 Under Swadesh Darshan, the following five circuits have been identified for development:-1. North East Circuit 2.Buddhist Circuit 3. Himalayan Circuit 4. Coastal Circuit 5. Krishna Circuit.
 Under PRASAD, initially twelve cities have been identified namely Ajmer, Amritsar, Amravati, Dwarka, Gaya, Kedarnath, Kamakhaya, Kanchipuram, Mathura, Puri, Varanasi and Velankanni.
River Conservation:
Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission – Namami Gange
 Announced in Budget 2014-15
 Nodal Agency: Ministry of Water Resources
 The scheme integrates the efforts to clean and protect the Ganga river in a comprehensive manner.
 National Ganga Monitoring Centre (NGMC) is conceptualized as a Nodal Centre for monitoring the critical aspects of Ganga rejuvenation, such as water and effluent quality at identified suitable locations throughout Ganga, using IT enabled systems, etc.
 The Government proposes to free all villages along the banks of the river from open defecation under Namami Gange project.
 Presently, a World Bank assisted National Ganga River Basin Project (NGRBP) for Rs 7000 crore and a Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) assisted Project at Varanasi for Rs. 496.90 crore are under implementation.
 The program would be implemented by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG), and its state counterpart organizations i.e., State Program Management Groups (SPMGs). NMCG will also establish field offices wherever necessary.
 The program will be implemented through 100% Centre funding.

Summary of Economic Survey 2014-15

Extremely important for IAS aspirants 2015 attempt:
Dear friends please go through the Economic Survey 2014-15 which was released few days back. Every year, just before the budget, the Economic Survey for the last year is released which gives a snapshot of all that is good and bad with the economy. It is an extremely important document, and all the aspirants should definitely read the crux of the report. It is vital for both PT as well as Mains.
Economic Outlook, Prospects and Policy Challenges
((click HERE to download the full chapter: )
(1) Inflation has declined by over 6 percentage points since late 2013 and the current account deficit has declined from a peak of 6.7 percent of GDP (2012-13) to an estimated 1.0 percent in the coming fiscal year. This is an extremely important positive turn for the economy. Moreover the foreign portfolio flows have stabilized the rupee, exerting downward pressure on long-term interest rates, reflected in yields on 10-year government securities, and contributed to the surge in equity prices.
(2) After a nearly 12-quarter phase of deceleration, real GDP has been growing at 7.2 percent on average since 2013-14, based on the new growth estimates of the Central Statistics Office. Notwithstanding the new estimates, the balance of evidence suggests that India is a recovering, but not yet a surging, economy.
(3) From a cross-country perspective, a Rational Investor Ratings Index (RIRI) which combines indicators of macro-stability with growth, illustrates that India ranks amongst the most attractive investment destinations.
(4) Several reforms have been undertaken and more are on the anvil. The introduction of the GST and expanding direct benefit transfers can be game-changers.
(5) In the short run, growth will receive a boost from the cumulative impact of reforms, lower oil prices, likely monetary policy easing facilitated by lower inflation and improved inflationary expectations, and forecasts of a normal monsoon in 2015-16. Using the new estimate for 2014-15 as the base, GDP growth at constant market prices is expected to accelerate to between 8.1 and 8.5 percent in 2015-16.
(6) Medium-term prospects will be conditioned by the “balance sheet syndrome with Indian characteristics” (this phrase has been used because Indian companies are suffering from a classic case of “debt overhang” after an investment bubble funded by borrowings and the failure to commission such large investments) that has the potential to hold back rapid increases in private sector investment. Private investment must be the engine of long-run growth. However, there is a case for reviving targeted public investment as an engine of growth in the short run to complement and crowd-in private investment.
(7) India can balance the short-term imperative of boosting public investment to revitalize growth with the need to maintain fiscal discipline. Expenditure control, and expenditure switching from consumption to investment,will be key.
(8) The outlook is favourable for the current account deficit and its financing. A likely surfeit, rather than scarcity, of foreign capital will complicate exchange rate management. Reconciling the benefits of these flows with their impact on exports and the current account remains an important challenge going forward.
(9) India faces an export challenge, reflected in the fact that the share of manufacturing and services exports in GDP has stagnated in the last five years. The external trading environment is less benign in two ways: partner country growth and their absorption of Indian exports has slowed, and mega-regional trade agreements being negotiated by the major trading nations in Asia and Europe threaten to exclude India and place its exports at a competitive disadvantage.
(10) India is increasingly young, middle-class, and aspirational but remains stubbornly male. Several indicators suggest that gender inequality is persistent and high. In the short run, the renewed emphasis on family planning targets,backed by misaligned incentives, is undermining the health and reproductive autonomy of women.
Fiscal Framework
(click HERE to download the full chapter: )
(1) India must adhere to the medium-term fiscal deficit target of 3 percent of GDP. This will provide the fiscal space to insure against future shocks and also to move closer to the fiscal performance of its emerging market peers.
(2) India must also reverse the trajectory of recent years and move toward the golden rule of eliminating revenue deficits and ensuring that, over the cycle, borrowing is only for capital formation.
(3) Expenditure control combined with recovering growth and the introduction of the GST will ensure that medium term targets are comfortably met.
(4) To ensure fiscal credibility and consistency with medium-term goals, the process of expenditure control to reduce the fiscal deficit should be initiated. At the same time, the quality of expenditure needs to be shifted from consumption, by reducing subsidies, towards investment.
(5) Implementing the Fourteenth Finance Commission’s recommendations will lead to states accounting for a large share of total tax revenue. This has the important implication that, going forward, India’s public finances must be viewed at the consolidated level and not just at the level of the central government. If recent trends in state-level fiscal management continue, the fiscal position at the consolidated level will be on a sustainable path.
Subsidies and the JAM Number Trinity Solution
(click HERE to download the full chapter: )
(1) The JAM Number Trinity – Jan Dhan Yojana, Aadhaar, Mobile – can enable the State to transfer financial resources to the poor in a progressive manner without leakages and with minimal distorting effects.
The Investment Challenge
(click HERE to download the full chapter: )
(1) The stock of stalled projects stands at about 7 percent of GDP, accounted for mostly by the private sector. Manufacturing and infrastructure account for most of the stalled projects. Changed market conditions and impeded regulatory clearances are the prominent reasons for stalling in private and public sectors, respectively.
(2) This has weakened the balance sheets of the corporate sector and public sector banks, which in turn is constraining future private investment, completing a vicious circle.
(3) Despite high rates of stalling, and weak balance sheets, the stock market valuations of companies with stalled projects are quite robust,which is a puzzle.
The Banking Challenge
(click HERE to download the full chapter: )
(1) The Indian banking balance sheet is suffering from ‘double financial repression’. On the liabilities side, high inflation lowered real rates of return on deposits. On the assets side, statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) and priority sector lending (PSL) requirements have depressed returns to bank assets.
(2) Private sector banks did not partake in the biggest private-sector-fuelled growth episode in Indian history during 2005-2012. This is reflected in the near-constant share of private sector banks in deposits and advances in those years.
(3) There is substantial variation in the performance of the public sector banks, so that they should not be perceived as a homogenous block while formulating policy.
Putting Public Investment on Track – the Rail Route to Higher Growth
(click HERE to download the full chapter: )
(1) The Indian Railways over the years have been on a ‘route to nowhere’ characterized by under-investment resulting in lack of capacity addition and network congestion; neglect of commercial objectives; poor service provision; and consequent financial weakness. These have cumulated to below-potential contribution to economic growth.
(2) Very modest hikes in passenger tariffs and cross-subsidisation of passenger services from freight operations over the years have meant that Indian (PPP-adjusted) freight rates remain among the highest in the world, with the railways ceding significant share in freight traffic to roads (that is typically more costly and energy inefficient).
(3) As a result, the competitiveness of Indian industry has been undermined. Calculations reveal that China carries about thrice as much coal freight per hour vis-à-vis India. Coal is transported in India at more than twice the cost vis-à-vis China, and it takes 1.3 times longer to do so.
(4) Econometric evidence suggests that the railways public investment multiplier (the effect of a Rs. 1 increase in public investment in the railways on overall output) is around 5. In the long run, the railways must be commercially viable and public support must be linked to railway reforms: adoption of commercial practices; tariff rationalization; and technology overhaul.
Skill India to Complement Make in India
(click HERE to download the full chapter: )
(1) What should we ‘Make in India’? Sectors that are capable of facilitating structural transformation in an emerging economy must:
(a) have a high level of productivity,
(b) show convergence to the technological frontier over time,
(c) draw in resources from the rest of the economy to spread the fruits of growth,
(d) be aligned with the economy’s comparative advantage; and
(e) be tradeable.
(2) Registered manufacturing, construction and several service sectors — particularly business services — perform well on the above mentioned characteristics. A key concern with these sectors however is that they are rather skill-intensive and do not match the skill profile of the Indian labour force.
(3) India could bolster the Make in India’’initiative, which requires improving infrastructure and reforming labor and land laws by complementing it with the ‘Skilling India’ initiative. This would enable a larger section of the population to benefit from the structural transformation that such sectors will facilitate.
A National Market for Agricultural Commodities
(click HERE to download the full chapter: )
(1) Markets in agricultural products are regulated under the Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) Act enacted by State Governments. India has not one, not 29, but thousands of agricultural markets. APMCs levy multiple fees of substantial magnitude, that are non-transparent, and hence a source of political power.
(2) The Model APMC Act, 2003 could benefit from drawing upon the ‘Karnataka Model’ that has successfully introduced an integrated single licensing system. The key here is to remove the barriers that militate against the creation of choice for farmers and against the creation of marketing infrastructure by the private sector.
Climate Change
(click HERE to download the full chapter: )
(1) India has cut subsidies and increased taxes on fossil fuels (petrol and diesel along with a coal cess) turning a carbon subsidy regime into one of carbon taxation. The implicit carbon tax is US$ 140 for petrol and US$64 for diesel.
(2) In light of the recent falling global coal prices and the large health costs associated with coal, there may be room for further rationalization of coal pricing. The impact of any such changes on affordable energy for the poor must be taken into account.
(3) On the whole, the move to substantial carbon taxation combined with India’s ambitious solar power program suggests that India can make substantial contributions to the forthcoming Paris negotiations on climate change.
The Fourteenth Finance Commission
(click HERE to download the full chapter: )
(1) The FFC marks a watershed in the history of Indian federalism. Unprecedented increases in tax devolution will confer more fiscal autonomy on the states. This will be enhanced by the FFC-induced imperative of having to reduce the scale of other central transfers to the states. In other words, states will now have greater autonomy both on the revenue and expenditure fronts. All states stand to gain from extra resources although there will be some variation between the states.
(2) FFC transfers are highly progressive; that is, states with lower per capita Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) receive on average much larger transfers per capita. In contrast, plan transfers were much less progressive. The concern that more transfers will undermine fiscal discipline is not warranted because states as a whole have been more prudent than the centre in recent years.

India Yearbook 2015,main points compiled in one pdf by raoias Part 2

Part 2


Part 1


Alternate link

India Yearbook 2015 Notes ,Download PDF

Download India Yearbook Important Chapters [Zip file 145 Mb ]   

Link 2

Buy In eBook Fromat from Flipkart 

Click Here

National Health Policy 2015

Since independence, India’s national health policies have been aspirational but the end results have been limited. The National Health Policy 2015, which is in the process of being finalised, should, in place of the earlier “broadband” approach, adopt a “narrow focus” on primary healthcare through the National Rural Health Mission. The latter has focused on primary healthcare and has shown visible results. A slew of suggestions as to how this can be done are made in this article.

Javid Chowdhury ( is a retired IAS offi cer who has served as the Union Health
Secretary. He is now associated with NGOs and continues to research public health policy issues.

The Government of India is in the process of framing the National Health Policy (NHP) 2015 with the draft already in the public domain for comments and suggestions. This article traces the features of the previous two national health policies of 1983 and 2002 and arrives at some recommendations for NHP 2015. The Health Policy of 1983 drew upon the general ideas of the Alma Ata Declaration, a global milestone in propagating public health, principally through primary healthcare. Its follower, the Health Policy of 2002, was less general in approach, looked at the health terrain from a lower altitude, and made recommendations on strategy and policy that were more pointed. Also, the 2002 policy recommended focus on primary healthcare more forcefully. After the introduction of the 2002 health policy, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) adopted a new programme, the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) which was in the nature of a “ring-fenced,” exclusive, primary healthcare scheme. In the eight years since it has been introduced, its outcomes have been promising. Rural health indices have been seen to be improving as never before. Looking at this background, we would recommend that the “ring-fenced,” primary healthcare scheme be adopted across the country with assured funds, and no possibility under the rules for diversion of these funds. This article also makes some other recommendations on key policy issues relating to this sector.

1 Disease Profile

The NHP 2015 would necessarily have to be set in the existing health scenario. Today we face what is called the “double burden of disease” — a large volume of age-old communicable diseases (tuberculosis, malaria, respiratory tract disorders, gastrointestinal infections, etc), and now increasingly combined with a heavy burden of non-communicable (diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular), also known as lifestyle diseases. Malnutrition is still widely prevalent in the country with 44% of the children under the age of five being underweight, while 72% of the infants and 52% of the women are anaemic. Even the very inexact estimates of morbidity and mortality for the major diseases that are available indicate a staggering disease burden: TB two million new cases and 0.4 million deaths per year; malaria 15 million cases per year; HIV-AIDS (prevalence) 2.4 million cases. If in a developed country the disease burden was even a fraction of that given above, the concerned government would have immediately declared a “health emergency,” if not a more broad-based “national emergency.”

2 Resources for the Health Sector

As in any other country, the challenge of maintaining a state of good health and well-being of the citizenry has to be met through interventions in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. For India, the total health expenditure (THE) is 4.5% of its gross domestic product (GDP), a small fraction of the modest norm of 6.5% of GDP suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) for developing countries. What the Indian citizen gets in the health sector is a derisory amount compared to that in the developed world: US 16.9%; France 11.6%; Switzerland 11.4%; Germany 11.3%; Japan 10.3%; UK 9.3%. Even more distressing is the fact that the public health expenditure (PHE), which is the state contribution over the years, at 1% of the GDP has hovered close to that of the lowest five countries of the globe. These figures clearly indicate that even in highly developed countries, where the capacity of the average citizen to finance his/her own health services independently is very high, the state considers it a prime component of the responsibility of governance to fund healthcare. Strangely, in India this responsibility has been implicitly abdicated by the state on the specious ground that we cannot afford the required resources for the sector.

2.1 Plan Contributions

As a deliberate departure from the past, the government for the Eleventh Five Year Plan had fixed an enhanced resource allocation target of 2% to 3% of the GDP. This was not overambitious, but as it transpired, even this turned out to be an optical illusion. In the event, the actual release of resources over the plan period amounted to 1.04% of the GDP, no different from the earlier five-year period.

Over the Twelfth Plan period the government commitment was to provide Rs 3,00,018 crore. In point of fact, the budgetary releases over the first three years have been only 56% of the plan allocation. The persistent failure in meeting plan commitments by making commensurate budgetary allocations gives a very poor impression of the sincerity of the government in supporting the social sectors.

3 Health Policies Over Time

The health policy has to be determined in the context of the prevailing health scenario and the existing health organisational structure. Despite some improvement in the health standards of the country in the decades after independence, the strategy of service delivery over much of the period was ad hoc, particularly so in the private sector. At this stage of the discussion it would be appropriate to briefly recall the principle stages through which the health policy has traversed in the years after independence.

3.1 NHP 1983: Base Camp

The paramount need for a well-designed national health policy came to be highlighted after the Alma Ata Declaration. The NHP of 1983 was our first attempt to draw up a structured policy specific to India’s health sector. As it followed the Alma Ata Declaration, the NHP 1983 turned the arc-light on a well-dispersed network of primary healthcare services linked with extension services and health education. However, along with the primary healthcare component, almost every other area of concern was included in the policy document like drinking water, sanitation, nutrition, environmental impact, etc. It is recognised that the various social determinants of health have a significant impact on the state of health of the community, and the contributory impact of the social determinants is crucial to the ultimate quality of the health scenario. However, I believe that to keep the span of the study manageable, the NHP 2015 should cover only the core components of the health sector, while the other social determinants should be left to an independent policy document.

The NHP 1983, after covering at a generalised level almost every possible element in the universe of “health,” did not provide adequate conceptual guidance to the public health administrators as to how they should strategise and projectise. In result, the strategies and projects adopted by the government in the decades after that were at best sui generis and at worst ad hoc. What we now find staring us in the face is that most of the elements of the policy of 1983 were projected at an aspirational level, and these proved to be of limited assistance to the public health administrator in actually strategising schemes and implementing them. If any strategy or scheme achieved an internal coherence with an element of the policy, it was entirely a matter of accident. Improvements achieved in the health sector were of an accidental nature, not linked to any health sector targets, and were helped along by the other contemporaneous developments in the economic sectors.

3.2 NHP 2002: One Step Forward

I had the good fortune of piloting the exercise for drawing up the NHP 2002 and thereby gained first-hand experience of what it involved. In the course of drawing up of the NHP 2002 extensive consultations were held with health experts from academia and administrators of non-governmental organisations (NGOs). But, without in any way denigrating the expertise of these contributors in their own areas of functioning, it was apparent that their exposure to national policy formulation was limited. Most such individuals/organisations are passionate about their own areas of interest, but few have broader exposure to national level issues. Quite often the experts from academia and the administrators of NGOs tend to swing the policy document towards their areas of special interest without being able to stitch together inherent coherence in the broad features of a balanced policy document.

Nearly two decades after NHP 1983 had been adopted, in 2002 a dire public need was felt to draw up a fresh health policy. It was observed that over the period many elements of the earlier NHP had not really been internalised by the public health functionaries, and did not significantly result in practicable strategies. Improvement in the primary healthcare services in the rural health sector was woefully inadequate — the state could not in good conscience claim that it had adequately discharged its responsibilities of governance. The drafting team for NHP 2002, therefore, sought to design a corrective thrust for what was seen as conceptual inadequacies in the NHP of 1983. To make the policy more user-friendly, the NHP 2002 made a conscious effort to pitch it such that the conceptual direction was plain to everyone, and strategies/programmes automatically followed. To put it differently, the attempt in NHP 2002 was to bring the level of discourse down from the stratospheric level to cruising level.

To assist the stakeholders in optimising operational efficiency a road map was set out in NHP 2002, which had the following principle components:

(i) An enhanced quantum of central resources for the health sector, as these were inordinately low. Specific change of the resource allocation suggested was an increase of the PHE to 2% of the GDP and the THE to 6% of the GDP by year 2010. NHP 2002 also advocated an increase of the share of central government expenditure to 25% of the PHE from the existing level.

(ii) Focus on the goal of equity in the health system by increasing the share of primary healthcare, which is the more cost-effective category of expenditure with the suggested ratio of 55% of the resources for primary healthcare, 35% for secondary healthcare and 10% for tertiary healthcare.

(iii) Convergence of all disease control programmes under a single field administration (except the vertical programmes), in order to establish unity of command and economy and flexibility of operations.

(iv) Implementation of field programmes through autonomous organisations at state and district levels to ensure operational autonomy.

(v) Use of only generic drugs and vaccines in primary healthcare services. Providing of essential drugs under central funding in order to kick-start the activities in the otherwise moribund rural health system.

(vi) It was accepted as a situational reality that the contribution of the private sector in providing services had to be factored into the architecture of the health system. Also, it was noted that with such a large portion of the services coming from the private sector, statutory norms needed to be put in place immediately for regulating infrastructure, clinical practice and medical service standards.

Before we set out to make suggestions for NHP 2015, it would be appropriate to assess how much impact the NHP of 2002 had on the health scenario in the decade after its adoption. The overall performance was not impressive in the early period. The allocation of financial resources to the health sector (as percentage of the GDP) was on the same scale as in the pre-policy period. As had been happening in the past, rural healthcare had largely been provided as a diluted form of primary healthcare. The apportionment of allocation of health resources to the primary sector had not changed much, primary: 55%; secondary: 18%; tertiary: 27%. There was an undesirable swing towards the expensive tertiary sector. Pooling of public health personnel for other than vertical programmes has been introduced, but only fairly recently. Autonomous bodies have been set up in many states for managing the health programmes.

4 National Rural Health Mission

While no significant improvement in the national health scenario was observed even till the turn of the millennium, of late there has been a change in the situation which holds out a degree of promise as never seen before. About a decade ago, health administrators came to the conclusion that we needed a radical change in our priorities. It was felt that it was unrealistic to try and meet resource requirements for all desirable elements of the health sector. More serious, “primary healthcare,” our priority, came to be neglected. In this unacceptable situation it was considered necessary to adopt a health programme, which, without any scope for deflection, focused on primary healthcare.

The resources released under previous annual budgets were nowhere near the committed amount and the management attention required for a flagship programme was never made available. In the circumstances, the health administrators felt that they must cut away from the old-style budget-making where everyone is kept happy, and design a rural sector project that is funded and implemented entirely as a “fire-walled” project. The objective of the scheme was to provide primary healthcare to every citizen free of cost and the project was named Universal Health Coverage (UHC) by the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government (and renamed Universal Health Assurance by the National Democratic Alliance government).

The central government’s NRHM launched in 2005 has completed eight years (2005–06 saw the finalising of the programme and there were no field operations in this period). In my personal capacity, I undertook an evaluation of its performance based on programme statistical returns up to June 2014.1 My analysis on the performance and prognosis is contained in a monograph published by the National Institute of Health and Family Welfare titled “National Rural Health Mission: Performance and Prognosis.”2 I have relied on some of my findings in that monograph in this article. The programme was essentially a time-bound, mission-mode one, with many novel features.

The significant ones are: (i) It is a focused programme to strengthen and improve the rural health organisational structure, thereby radically improving the quality of primary healthcare service delivery, particularly relating to women and infants; (ii) increased deployment of the requisite skilled human resources at the different levels of the rural health system; (iii) increased allocation of financial resources on a sustained basis for consumables, infrastructure and for emergent situations; (iv) redesign of the matrix of administrative and financial procedures, particularly including delegation of adequate powers at different levels; (v) creation of community-based entities at different levels of the rural organisational structure for increasing community participation in planning, execution and monitoring of the rural health services. Some of these are old-time elements of the existing rural healthcare system, and it is only that they are to be strengthened by large infusions of the human, financial and material resources. Others like those relating to the co-option of community-based entities in the process of planning, implementation and supervision of the healthcare services have been introduced for the first time.

So far under the NRHM the health structure has been substantially reinforced with infrastructure, technical staff and an additional management module. Another module that was introduced in the NRHM was of community participation through voluntary workers and community institutions. The volunteers were called accredited social health activists (ASHAs) and were paid a nominal honorarium of Rs 500 per month, plus any other amount they could pick up from other government schemes on a piecework basis. These ASHAs were put through an elementary orientation course for: diagnosing/treating simple medical conditions, mediation between the patient and the health administration, and interceding in matters relating to advocacy in public health and hygiene.

More budgetary items permitting flexi-funding have been introduced in the NRHM, and reproductive and child health (RCH) budgets. Under the NRHM administrative processes have also been modified delegating much more administrative/financial powers to the lower formations. In sum, much more flex has been brought into the organisation of the rural health system, both at the level of service delivery and at the administrative/management level. It has also been noticed that these additional powers and facilities have been widely and beneficially used under the programme.

In addition to the organisational changes, significant changes have been made by way of providing substantial additionalities of infrastructure and consumables. Deployment of graduate doctors and clinical specialists has also improved noticeably in the primary health centres/community health centres (PHCs/CHCs), even though they are still short of the norms. The improvement in service delivery over the period 2005–06 to 2013–14 has been marked. There is much more evidence of activity at the rural service centres. The outpatient department (OPD) attendance in certain parts of the country, where the additional inputs have reached, has increased dramatically. Along with the impact of the Janani Suraksha Yojana, institutional deliveries under the NRHM have also increased dramatically. From the limited statistics available at this stage, it is clear that there is a very encouraging trend in the improvement of infant and maternal mortality rates (IMR and MMR) during the period of the NRHM programme. The growing trend in the annual decline rate over the previous year in MMR has increased from 2.6 to 6.4 in the period 2007 to 2012; and, the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) decline trend has ranged from 7.8 at the highest to 5.4 at the lowest in the same period, i e, from 2007 to 2012. This marks a significant breakthrough in the outcome of services delivered in the rural health sector.

Despite the improvements in many areas, for the NRHM to establish itself over the entire country, more time is required. For the first time in memory the primary healthcare services had been energised and the rural health sector seemed to have acquired a new life. In this promising situation, it is imperative to ensure that the programme does not slacken for any reason. The NRHM has completed eight years and would need at least another eight years to stabilise. This estimate should not discourage anyone. The programme is nothing but primary healthcare services delivered in a more efficient and tight management structure, and this is a fundamental duty of state governance. So far very small amounts of resources have been made available for it.

Since it has a bearing on the NRHM, it again needs to be highlighted that the aggregate resources for the health sector are grossly inadequate. In monetary terms, the per capita THE in 2011–12 was Rs 3,000, out of which Rs 900 (30%) was PHE. The figure of PHE is the state commitment for all manner of activities, out of which that for primary healthcare at 50% of PHE, would be Rs 450.This is the situation in respect of availabiity of resources when the NRHM initiatives of largely covering primary healthcare have been rolled out unevely and thinly over much of the country. To implement the scheme on the scale it was planned, we would require a much higher quantum of THE, and a much higher share of PHE out of that THE. To bring the PHE somewhat closer to that in developed countries, it must be raised to at least 50% of the THE (i e, Rs 2,800 per capita) by 2016–17.

Though the NRHM was launched in 2005–06, which was quite proximate to the launch of the NHP 2002, it is not my claim that the outcomes of the NRHM were necessarily the direct result of only the conceptual elements of the NHP 2002. It needs to be recognised that any transformation in the social sectors is a creeping change through an osmosis-like process. With our changing perception over time, change would be expected to be creeping into the mindset of the public health administrators. The conceptual strands contributed through the NHP 2002 may also have to some extent contributed to the outcomes of the NRHM. The progress made by the programme in the first eight years can be said to be substantial, even if it has been slow. The experience of the NRHM seems to indicate that it would be best to conceptually frame the NHP 2015 around primary healthcare, as incorporated in the NRHM.

5 NHP 2015: Two Steps Forward

5.1 Broadband or Narrow Focus

As we have moved from the NHP 1983 to the 2002 Health Policy, and now move towards NHP 2015, the conceptual concerns of the new policy seem to suggest themselves. The policy should lean heavily towards primary healthcare. The claims from the other sectors, no matter how pressing, would have to be declined. Some of the central elements required in the NHP 2015, as I assess them, are discussed below:

(i) As the first strand of NHP 2015, I would suggest that, to discharge its minimal responsibility of governance, the central government must very substantially increase its contribution of resources to the health sector. Looking to the success in the NRHM, it is very much in our national interest to honour the resource commitments earlier made under this programme. The country now has a real opportunity to pull itself out of a situation of permanent ill-health. The Twelfth Plan allocation is 2.5% of the GDP. Inadequate though this is, we naturally have to work within it. However, plan commitments in respect of resources cannot be allowed to be illusory on an indefinite basis. The budgetary allocations in the first three years have been about 56% of the proportionate entitlement for the Twelfth Plan period. There must be a quantum jump in the last two years of the plan period if the government can defend its sincerity in making plan allocations. Since the NRHM has markedly picked up momentum, it would be possible for the sector to gainfully absorb double the allocation in 2016 and 2017, i e, Rs 80, 000 per year. This allocation would bring the per capita allocation in the last two years of the Twelfth Plan to about Rs 650 per capita. The additional allocation would make it possible to give a significant boost to the NRHM which is presently being choked for want of funds.

(ii) It has been observed earlier that the health status over different parts of the country varies greatly. As was explicitly emphasised, one key element of the NHP 2002 was the objective of bringing about equity in the health status over the country as a whole. There is no evidence to show that this has been achieved to any extent even after eight years of the NRHM. Primary services are much more cost-effective than secondary and tertiary services. As a result of this, the outreach of primary services is much more per unit cost than secondary and tertiary services. Currently, the primary sector is getting only about 55% of the health sector resources. This adverse skew needs to be corrected. Considering that the policy imperative is that an unwavering focus be placed on the primary sector, I would suggest a distribution of resources, thus primary: 70%; secondary: 20%; and tertiary: 10%. This normative allocation of resources between the categories should be treated as unalterable under the budget so that resources are not arbitrarily diverted.

Currently, the state provides about 20% of the OPD services and 40% of the inpatient department (IPD) services in the health sector. The goal of providing equitable services from the state sector requires that the share of OPD and IPD at least be increased to 50% each, to make access of the state services available to the vulnerable sections.

A review of the NRHM indicates that the expenditure has been more or less the same in states with inferior health status (high focus states for the purpose of the NRHM) as that in states with superior health status. Such a continuing situation will never ensure a levelling of unequal health standards. I am of the view that in order to ensure improved equity in the underserved areas, the health policy statement could even go to the extent of recommending a budgetary allocation norm for weaker health states that is twice that for the stronger health states.

It is widely accepted that there is over-medicalisation in the health sector, and much of the use of drugs is unscientific. While there should be no corner cutting, it is beyond doubt that there would be no compromise to the quality of treatment if primary healthcare is restricted to a limited list of generic drugs. In these circumstances, I would advocate that, in order to minimise the cost of the primary care package, only generics from a limited list be used as therapeutic drugs. In the course of time the compulsory use of generic drugs could be extended to private sector primary healthcare also.

(iii) There is no escaping the fact that the Universal Health Assurance (UHA)would place an enormous burden on the resources of the state as compared to what is provided today. It is therefore imperative that the primary care package which is finalised and offered be realistically limited. Emphasis should be placed on the “preventive” and “promotive” components of primary care as these are “low-cost” and are largely based on community participation. There is always a populist demand for “comprehensive” healthcare. I am of the view that this should be resisted till the NRHM, with a modest primary healthcare package, has stabilised.

(iv) There is a significant shortage in the country of trained health service providers. At the highest level — the graduate doctors — there is a severe shortage in the public sector. In our system staff nurses/auxilliary nurses and midwives/ multipurpose workers are supposed to discharge only those limited duties for which they have been specifically trained. At least in the near future, it cannot be expected that their skills can be enhanced to cover much greater responsibilities. The prevailing problem of non-availability of graduate doctors is virtually disabling the rural health system. For quite some time now the health administrators have been considering a scheme of starting a short-term graduate course of two and a half years with one year internship — BSc (Community Health) — with a service domain limited to primary healthcare. These short-term graduate doctors will be from the rural areas and they will come to replace the totally untrained practitioners who are today the only service providers there. All in all, at a policy level, there seems to be no conceptual danger in the introduction of the scheme for starting of the short-term graduate course.

(v) For a balanced national health system, the contribution of the state sector, both by way of financial resources and services, should not be less than 50%. For the state to make a contribution to the health sector, the public health service specialisation must be available in an adequate quantum. Currently, the number of public health specialists is extremely low. For the public sector to discharge its role, a minimum of 25% of the certified health insurance specialists should belong to the public health sub-cadre. In this backdrop, it seems essential to correct the disproportionately low presence of public health specialists in the health system in the shortest possible time. In sum, it can be recommended that the public health specialists be recruited against vacancies on an overriding basis till the share of the central health services cadre reaches 25%.

(vi) Our national health system had a unique organisational structure for the programmes relating to the heavy burden diseases like the Revised National TB Control Programme, vector-borne diseases, leprosy, cataract blindness and HIV/AIDS. To have any impact on the burden of these diseases, it was felt necessary to have independent health service teams and budgets. The NHP 2002 had observed that, where the need for vertical programmes had reduced, these could be wound up and merged with the unified rural health administration. Pursuant to that recommendation in the NHP 2002, the RNTCP was removed from the vertical programmes, though recent field reports indicate that this move may have been a little premature. Both leprosy and cataract blindness are diseases which have come down to manageable levels and, perhaps these could be removed from the category of vertical programmes. In the light of the above, it is recommended that the diseases to be retained in the category of vertical programmes be reviewed.

(vii) The health services in the country, both in the public and private sectors are virtually unregulated. While there are professional councils (of doctors, dentists, nurses, and pharmacists), to oversee the professional ethics and conduct of the service providers, these councils are riven with corruption and are practically dysfunctional. Also, there is no institution to technically regulate the quality of services provided by these practitioners. Since the NHP 2015 is likely to make several recommendations entrusting service responsibilities to lower order health personnel, it is necessary to put in place robust institutions to supervise the ethical standards and technical performance of the health practitioners. In sum, I would recommend that regulatory bodies be set up at the centre and the states at the earliest to oversee the service delivery and ethics of the professional service providers in the health sector.

(viii) The spread of medical colleges is very uneven over the country. To improve the spread and create quality standard-setting institutions, it would be necessary to set up government colleges in states in which very few exist. In the circumstances, it would be appropriate to increase the number of government medical colleges so that the total number in the country is equally divided between the public and private sectors.

6 Summation

Over decades we have pursued an aspirational health policy but with very limited outcomes. For the last eight years we have seen a shift in tack. Through the NRHM, the health system has attempted to turn the single-minded focus to primary healthcare in its well-structured format. The programme has shown visible results and the system seems set for a makeover. In a parliamentary democracy public policies are often determined on the basis of voter response rather than technical assessment. In areas where the NRHM has been implemented the voter enthusiasm has been immense. In addition to an improved primary healthcare system for the citizenry, the political executive could hope for a windfall of votes! With these promising circumstances, it is recommended that the NHP 2015 adopt the singular conceptual stance of promoting primary healthcare through the NRHM, even if it be at the cost of some other areas of the health sector. I would recommend that this policy, in categorical terms, declare that in place of the earlier “broadband” approach, it would be desirable to adopt a “narrow focus” approach — on primary healthcare through the NRHM. It would be a realistic assessment that in a decade, with a modest amount of financial resources and some operational hand holding, we should be able to achieve UHA in the country in respect of primary healthcare.

Development vs Extremism: Xaxa Committee report

Click Here To download The recommendation of the Report

What was purpose of Xaxa Committee?

  1. 2005: UPA had setup Sachar Committee to Muslim community’s socio-economic-educational status.
  2. 2013: On the similar pattern, UPA-II setup Committee under Virginius Xaxa. He was a member of NAC (National advisory council).
  3. To study the socio-economic, health and educational status of tribals.
  4. To suggest policy initiatives and interventions for tribal-upliftment.
  5. 2014: Gave report.
Virginius Xaxa Committee on tribals

Major recommendations of Xaxa Committee

Land acquisition: Problems found:

  1. Government notifies rural areas as urban areas to keep them out of PESA coverage.
  2. The PPP (Public private partnership) model, is simply a backdoor method of tribal land alienation.
  3. Government agencies acquire land for “public purpose” but later transfer it to private companies at throwaway prices.
  4. Government
    has signed such MoUs with companies, Government officials became
    “dealers and negotiators” of tribal land. “Neutrality of the State” is
  5. In scheduled areas, tribal’s land cannot be
    transferred to non-tribals. YET Cabinet Committee on Investment (CCI)
    sometimes hastens project-files which directly /indirectly violate this
  6. Development projects lead to influx of outsiders to
    tribal areas, thus harm tribal interests by money landing activities and

Land Acquisition: Suggestions given

  1. Prevent all kinds of tribal land alienation
  2. Gram Sabha’s consent compulsory for any type of land acquisition. Even if the government wants land for its own use.
  3. If anyone obtains Gram Sabha’s consent fraudulently = impose penalties and cancel such projects.
  4. Empower
    Gram sabhas to restore alienated land back to original owner, even
    while case is pending in court. This will discourage non-tribal buyers
    from committing frauds.
  5. Earlier Vijay Kelkal Committee suggested
    that unused Government land should be sold off/leased off to get more
    money and reduce fiscal deficit. Xaxa asks Government to use such land
    for tribal-resettlement.
  6. Promote small sized water-harvesting structures instead for large dams.
  7. Impose penalties on officials, if delayed implementation of Forest Rights Act or PESA.

Mining in tribal areas

  1. After mines are exhausted, return the land back to original owner. Amend the Coal-Bearing Areas Act, 1957 to implement this.
  2. In Andhra Pradesh, tribal-cooperative societies are can do mining activities. Other states need to adopt same model.
  3. In Scheduled Areas, only permit tribals to exploit mineral resources.
  4. Future policy makers should learn lessons from Niyamagiri episode.

Linkage with Extremism

  1. There is no legal basis for terming anything a “Naxal offence”.
  2. Yet many tribals are arrested for protesting against developmental projects.
  3. Thus, laws are used as tools of tribal oppression.
  4. Appoint a judicial commission to investigate such “naxal cases” registered against tribals and their (non-tribal) supporters.
  5. Avoid making Salwa Judum like policies to combat left wing extremism.

Epilogue: Modi
unlikely to implement any of this, because he wants to give rapid push
to highways, mining and industrial corridors, while Xaxa suggesting
tough norms for land acquisition. Nonetheless, provides sufficient
fodder for Mains GS.

Appendix: Tribal insurgency

just some fodder points based on a book review in thehindu
Under British rule:

  • The British passed Forest Acts (1878, 1927) banned -shifting cultivation, foraging, grazing and hunting in Indian jungles.
  • British
    kept the tribal areas under their direct administration through
    Governors and kept ‘their’ forest almost intact until they left India.
  • This negatively affected the livelihoods of tribes- leading to rebellions.
  • The
    British branded their protests as ‘savage attacks’, and usedextreme
    violence to impose ‘Colonial-civilisation’ on these “savages”.
  • Konds of Odisha- they spill blood to worship their deity under “Meriah” rite. But British branded it as “human sacrifice”.

Under Free India:

  • Since 1980s, Central and Eastern India became the perfect guerrilla terrain for the Naxalites.
  • This
    region is home to a large tribal population. The Maoist movement spread
    in these tribal belts because they Promised to end their historical
    marginalisation; and managed to build intimacy with local people,
    overriding differences of caste or tribe.
  • UPA Government took away nearly 1.2 lakh ht. of forest land and gave it to MNCs for mining and power projects.
  • Tribal
    made to work in the most dangerous parts of mines and steel plants, for
    petty wages. Thus, even the new ‘civilised’ Indian are keeping them as
    ‘primitive’ as possible.

Appendix 2: Constitutional & Legal protection

Constitutional protection to ST: List not exhaustive

Article How tribals protected?
15/4 State can make special provisions for advancement of SEBC, SC and ST.
19/5 As
such citizen can freely move, reside and aquire property in any part of
India. BUT State can impose restrictions to protect the ST. Example-
forbidding non-tribals from purchasing land from tribal.
23 Human trafficking prohibited.
29 Linguistic minority has right to conserve its language and culture. Many ST communities are also linguistic minorities.
164 Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and JHK need to appoint a minister for tribal welfare.
330, 332 Reservation for SC-ST in Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha.
334 Above reservation valid only for ten years.
335 Reservation for SC-ST in Government jobs.
338A National commission for ST, appointed by President.
339/1 after
10 years from Constitution, President shall appoint a Commission to
prepare report on Scheduled areas and ST. So far two commissions setup
UN Dhebar (1961) and Dilip Singh Bhuria (2002)
371 Special provisions for 11 states. Including tribal-protection in Gujarat, Maharashtra, NE etc.
Schedule How tribals protected?
5th Tribal areas in nine states. Governors given special powers.
6th Autonomous district councils in AMTM = Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya and Mizoram

Legal protection to ST: Just brief overview

Law How tribals protected?
  • PESA or Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act
  • State Government have to give certain political, administrative and financial powers to local governments in tribal areas.
  • 50% seats reserved for tribals.
  • All chairpersons must be tribals (@gram, tehsil, district level bodies).
  • Forest rights act
  • Tribals given “land ownership”, if they can prove they/their ancestors have been tilling the land beyond x years.
  • Gram Sabha/ community rights over forest, forest produce, IPR on traditional medicine etc.

Mock Questions for Mains

Answer following in 200 words each:

  1. “The
    problem of tribal land alienation and its linkages with extremism, can
    be best solved with Implementation of Xaxa Committee report.” Expand on
    the assertion made.
  2. Discuss the Constitutional provisions for protection and development of Tribal areas in India.
  3. Mention
    any three tribal areas in India. What’re the main components of
    Government’s tribal development program? (UPSC asked this in 1988.)

MGNREGA in Andhra Pradesh’s Tribal Areas epw

India’s scheduled tribes are among the most
deprived socio-economic groups and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Guarantee scheme has great potential in tribal areas. While
the Andhra Pradesh government has made an effort to ensure
implementation of the scheme in the scheduled areas, the gap between
administrative orders and the grass-roots level is wide. This article
lists measures that could radically improve implementation of the scheme
in tribal areas.

Diego Maiorano ( is with the University of Liège, Belgium and Chakradhar Buddha ( is Convener, Samalochana and works on tribal issues.

We would like to thank P S Ajay Kumar for valuable inputs.

India’s scheduled tribes are among the most deprived socio-economic
groups and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee scheme
has great potential in tribal areas. While the Andhra Pradesh
government has made an effort to ensure implementation of the scheme in
the scheduled areas, the gap between administrative orders and the
grass-roots level is wide. This article lists measures that could
radically improve implementation of the scheme in tribal areas.

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
is likely to change significantly in the coming months. The Bharatiya
Janata Party (BJP)-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government has
promised to make it more outcome-oriented, less prone to theft and to
improve implementation. Changes are likely to occur at the state level
too, especially where there were changes of government. Andhra Pradesh
(AP) is a case in point. On the one hand, the bifurcation of the state
will probably translate into quite radical administrative changes; on
the other hand, the new Telugu Desam Party (TDP) government has already
started talking about introducing potentially radical policy changes.

We point out a few measures that we believe could radically improve
the implementation of the scheme in tribal (scheduled) areas of AP (and
possibly in other states). It is well known that the scheduled tribes
(STs) are among the most deprived social groups in the country.
According to the Ministry of Tribal Affairs’ website, STs lag far behind
the rest of the population in terms of every possible human development
indicator. According to the 2001 Census, in unified AP 61% of STs are
below the poverty line. Tribals derive their sustenance from land and
forest and are mostly engaged in agricultural activities which are very
primitive in nature and offer very little income. It is therefore
crucial that, in reforming the MGNREGA, the special needs of tribal
areas are taken into account, since the STs are the section of the
population that most desperately need the safety net that the scheme is
supposed to provide. This is even more important since official data
shows that the generation of MGNREGA employment in tribal areas is lower
than in the plain areas. In 2013-14 the average personday in AP
(excluding Telangana but including tribal areas) was 54.49 days per
household. In tribal areas the corresponding figure was just 43.21 days
per household.

The starting point of any policy regarding tribal areas, emanating
from constitutional provisions and the Nehruvian Panchsheel principles,
is that these areas deserve special treatment because of their peculiar
ecological, cultural, demographic and socio-economic context. This
should of course apply to the implementation of the MGNREGA too.

The AP government seems to be aware that tribal areas require special
attention, and it has indeed tried to adopt special implementation
arrangements. On the one hand, it has devolved the responsibility of
implementation to the Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA); on
the other hand, it has issued a number of circulars and government
orders meant to tackle specific implementation problems.

Different Reality

However, the reality on the ground does not match the
administration’s efforts. The devolvement of powers to the ITDA,
although established on paper, has just not happened on the ground. In
many cases, personnel of the rural development department (RDD) are
still in charge of the implementation of the MGNREGA and field staff
still report to them. There are obvious reasons why the RDD at the local
level does not want to let the MGNREGA go since it constitutes a
substantial chunk of the department’s spending. Less obvious reasons
include the power structure that surrounds the MGNREGA, an extremely
popular scheme. These power structures are formed by a network of local
politicians and administrators that have all the incentives to retain
whatever control they can exercise on the scheme (and on the procurement
of material). Effectively devolving the responsibility to implement the
scheme to the ITDA means disrupting these power structures, a process
that is of course resisted at various levels.

However, this is an extremely important step. First, the ITDA
operates from a level that is much closer to the grass roots than the
RDD, that operates to a significant extent from the district
headquarters. This does not only affect the administration’s
understanding of the ground reality of tribal areas, but it has
practical and logistical implications too. For example, the district
programme director (PD) is extremely unlikely to visit tribal areas that
could be several hours of travelling away (according to official data
out of 5,948 tribal villages 1,092 do not have road connectivity at
all). This of course affects the crucial monitoring function of the PD
that proved to be one of the key reasons for the good implementation of
the scheme in other parts of the state.

Also, no district in AP is exclusively tribal. This means that it is
objectively difficult for the already overloaded PDs to pay special
attention to the needs of tribal areas. Finally, there is plenty of
evidence that the ITDA is much more equipped to understand (not least
from a cultural point of view) the needs of the tribals. It could be
added that given that most of the staff of the ITDA belongs to the STs
themselves, open discrimination is less likely to occur. This
could incentivise MGNREGA beneficiaries to raise their voice and report
malpractices without fears of being humiliated.

A second very important issue that needs to be tackled urgently
concerns the staff that implements the scheme. In short, it is
unconceivable that the same amount of personnel that the scheme requires
in non-tribal areas is sufficient to reach the same targets in tribal
areas. To give just one example, consider the norms that regulate the
appointment of field assistants, who are the main implementers at the
gram panchayat (GP) level. According to these rules, if a given GP has
more than five habitations, two field assistants will be appointed. This
works reasonably well in non-tribal areas. T Arjapuram GP in
Ravikamatham mandal of Visakhapatnam district, for example, has eight
habitations. Accordingly, it has two field assistants who are able to
cover relatively easily all parts of the GP. But in tribal areas the
average number of habitations per GP is considerably higher, not to
mention the fact that they are scattered in much larger (and less
accessible) areas. Solabham GP in G Madigula mandal in the same
district, for example, has as many as 48 habitations and yet only two
field assistants! While Solabham could well be an extreme case (in other
tribal villages the number of staff has been increased), the geographic
and demographic configuration of tribal areas requires a greater effort
in terms of appointing field staff.

This is an instance of a larger problem that concerns administrative
spending in tribal areas. According to the MGNREGA Act, up to 6% of the
total spending should be used for administrative requirements. An
implication of the constitutional safeguards for tribal areas and of the
Nehruvian Panchsheel principles is that the administration, to put it
bluntly, should spend more in tribal areas to achieve the same target
that can be reached in non-tribal areas. Official data shows that the
opposite is true. In 2013-14, the administrative expense in AP was
10.63% of the total MGNREGA spending, whereas in tribal areas the
corresponding figure is as low as 1.88%.

Such a low spending makes it just impossible for field staff to
implement the scheme properly. Think of a technical assistant who has to
travel long distances to take care of a number of gram panchayats (and
hence an exorbitant number of habitations) with a salary and a travel
allowance that is only slightly higher than that of his/her colleagues
in the plain areas where the distance to be covered is just a fraction.
One of them told us that he was somewhat “forced” to steal something
from the scheme just to be able to pay for the petrol for his motorbike.
The government has issued orders for hiring more staff. However, though
the order was issued in May 2013, the recruitment of the additional
staff proceeds at an excruciatingly low pace.

Social Audits

A related problem concerns the social audits. AP can be proud of its
highly institutionalised social audit system, which has no peer among
all other Indian states. However, when it comes to tribal areas, there
is the need to adopt special procedures for conducting the audits. This
has again much to do with the ecological configuration of tribal areas.
If it takes four hours for a social audit team to reach a given GP (and
hence four hours to go back), this means that very little time (if at
all) is left for the auditing procedures. (Reaching most gram panchayats
in tribal areas from the mandal headquarters takes far more than four
hours). According to civil society groups working at the grass-roots
level, at least in certain cases the social audits are conducted from
the mandal headquarters, without any contact with the beneficiaries,
thus losing the social component of the audit. It is also worrying that
social auditors are (relatively often) denied official documentation
(this applies to non-tribal areas too).

The good news is that the society that implements social audits in AP
appears to be aware of the problem. A new social audit process
(specifically designed for tribal areas) should be rolled out starting
from September. This could be the occasion also to strengthen the
partnership with local-level civil society organisations, who have a
better understanding of the area and that could make the work of the
auditors easier.

Finally, the administration should consider that small administrative
changes could make a great difference in tribal areas. For example,
most of the tribal population of AP lives on the Eastern Ghats where the
soil is particularly hard. This means that, in order to complete a
certain MGNREGA task, more work is required than in areas with softer
soil. This has important consequences on the wages the beneficiaries
get. The MGNREGA system takes into consideration this aspect and allows
administrators to classify the soil as normal, hard or rocky. However,
local implementers virtually never choose the “rocky” option. This is
probably due to the fact that on the one hand, classifying the work as
“rocky” requires an authorisation from higher levels; on the other hand,
doing so will increase the probability of being subject to checks by
the state government. In other words, it is a risky activity for a small
reward. Simply allowing administrators in tribal areas to classify the
soil as rocky – which much of the soil in the Eastern Ghats is – without
the need for a specific authorisation would increase the wages of the
beneficiaries to the levels comparable to that of the other wage seekers
in the state.


To sum up, STs are by far the most disadvantaged groups in India’s
society and in most cases they live in very remote areas where very
little economic activity takes place. The MGNREGA in tribal areas
constitutes an essential safety net against starvation and destitution,
particularly during the lean agricultural season. It is crucial that the
peculiar ecological, social, cultural and economic conditions of tribal
areas are taken into account. The state administration did make a
sincere attempt to do so; but a greater effort is needed in order to
fill the gap between government orders and ground reality.

The India Energy Security Scenarios, 2047

The IESS, 2047 is housed in the Energy and Research Division of
the Planning Commission; and has been developed as an energy scenario
building tool. The guiding ambition of this is to develop energy
pathways leading up to the year 2047, exploring a range of potential
future energy scenarios for India, across energy supply sectors such as
renewable energy, oil, gas, coal, and nuclear, and energy demand
sectors such as transport, industry, agriculture, cooking, lighting and
appliances, etc. The outcomes of this model also evaluate carbon
dioxide emissions, and land-use implications for different energy

Get the Downloadable Excel Model

Explore the Interactive Web Version

Energy Security

The guiding principle
of the India Energy Security Scenarios, 2047 (IESS, 2047) is energy
security, viewed as reduced import dependency for India in the years
between now and 2047. The IESS, 2047 generates information as to what
percentage of the total primary energy supply (as per the pathway
chosen by the user), will be met by imports.  Hence, while the tool
segregates the demand for energy by sectors, and the supply numbers by
sources, it also generates energy import numbers by source, and
aggregates the same to offer total energy imports under different
scenarios.  As the scenarios generated for different sectors are linear
(either rising or falling, as the case may be), the graphic
representation of the data sets is simple and easily understandable
even by non-energy experts. A detailed examination of the tool will
reveal how changes in choices of energy demand and supply, yielding
different levels of energy import, can help a planner to decide the
sector(s), in which interventions can be more effective to meet the
desired policy objectives.  Since the tool also offers fuel-wise data
(some consuming sectors use specific fuels), it is also possible to see
which demand sectors should be influenced through suitable policy
measures, to curb consumption of the imported fuels.  Hence, it is a
handy tool to use for those interested in understanding the energy
security dimensions of the country.
How to generate import dependency data ?
Once the user chooses his pathway
, he/she can witness the effect of the same on the percentage import
dependence of the country in the third graph on the homepage of the
webtool, both in terms of total import dependence and segregation by
fuel imports.
C:UsersAsthaDesktopNew for websiteScreenshot how toPicture4.png

The user can also go to the energy security section of the
webtool to delve deeper into the energy security implications of his
chosen pathway. The IESS, 2047, enables the user to see the impact his
choices make on the percentage of fossil fuel imported in the country,
the subsequent impact on India’s import bill and a comparison in terms
of absolute numbers between India’s domestic and imported fuel
C:UsersAsthaDesktopNew for websiteScreenshot how toPicture9.png

How to use the Import dependency function ?
Having seen how the IESS, 2047 works in providing
import related information, we need to understand the algorithm in the
Calculator. Once the user has created the demand for energy (specified
fuels and electricity) by opting different choices in the demand
sectors, he is then required to choose the supply pathways. Here, the
role of energy balancing comes in (see the write-up on Balancing). The
volume of fossil fuel imports is dependent on the levels of production
of domestic sources of energy and electricity, compared to demand. The
algorithm in the IESS, 2047 automatically does the gap filling by
imports. Hence, the user has to calibrate either the demand (by
lowering the demand of the sector dependent on imported fuel – through
technology/behaviour change), or ramp up doemstic production. He could
also shift the supply mix – produce more electricity from RE rather than
fossil fuels. Hence, the dynamic results/impact of user choices,
depicted on the import dependency graphs are very handy in guiding the
user to influence his energy pathway to improve import dependency
‘Pop up’ on over generation/exports
If the user has inadvertantly/consciously opted for
higher levels of energy supply (as compared to the demand), the
Calculator will generate the surplus energy volume and indicate the same
on the screen in the webtool. In this case, there might be a situation
of India importing fuel, and also exporting it either as primary
energy (coal or gas etc) or  electricity at the same time. The
calculator does not predict the user preference and adjust the export of
energy with imports on its own. It will, however, let the user know of
this anomalous situation, and expect a calibration of the energy
pathway choices to minimise generation of electricty, or change the
fuel mix in favour of domestic sources (ramp up domestic production of
fossil fuels/RE). He could also reduce demand in those sectors which
are dependent on imported fuels. The Sankeye is the best place to view
the above situation, as it also gives the exact numbers both on the
demand and supply sides, for easy calibration. Hence, in the energy
security fearure of the IESS, 2047 the user may have to interpret the
import dependence graph in the light of the export situation which may
have developed simultaneously. It may, however, be added that as the
south Asian electricity grid matures, there may be a situation of India
having a large electricity export market, or even using
inter-connectors to balance the grid, as is seen in Europe.
What value does this feature add ?
As mentioned earlier, the Tool provides energy
consumption data by fuel and electricity. The user gets to choose how is
the electricity supplied – which source. Therefore, the IESS, 2047 is
unique in providing information on energy security in the overall
context of all supply sources. In India, while we do get individual
fuel wise import dependence data, but seldom on an overall basis. This
Tool informs the user of the likely contribution of different fuels in
the overall imports – one can see the role of coal, petroleum and gas
individually, as well as on the overall basis. Secondly, the future
scenarios of energy import bill is another value – add of this Tool,
which is derived using IEA estimates of future prices (until 2035 and
extrapolated thereafter). This graphic representation of individual fuel
import bill as well as the total bill, also helps one to compare the
price trade-off of different fuels (crude has larger share of import
bill than its primary energy supply). The varying prices of fuels in
the long term as per the estimates, (gas is expected by some to get
cheaper as compared to oil) helps the user to see which fuel is likely
to be more onerous on the country’s FE bill. Thirdly, the Tool can also
inform the user of the impact of demand choices on the energy
security. Hence, for the first time for India, we can evaluate the
impact of shifts in passenger/freight transport pattern or in cooking
sectors, on energy import bill. Finally, this feature juxtaposes energy
efficiency and renewable energy on one framework, for the user to
evaluate the impact of policies on the former (the demand side choices
are more around technology), vis-à-vis RE (on the Supply side) on
import dependency. 

Finally, it may be added that the IESS, 2047 is an integrated
exercise between energy demand and supply sectors on one hand, and
energy security, balancing, energy flows, emissions, land etc on the
other. The Calcualtor has been developed to offer user-friendly
interface on all the above accounts by generating graphs, which change
dynamically as the user changes his choices. As India has large import
dependence in the energy sector, it calls for concerted action not
merely on supply side, but equally on demand side. The Example Pathways feature better informs the user of the standalone impact of interventions on the demand or supply side. 

Rakesh Mohan Committee Report on Transport Development Policy Released

Increase Investment in Transport to 3.3 Percent of GDP
set up Metro-Politant Urban Transport Authority

The High Level National Transport
Development Policy Committee (NTDPC), chaired by Dr. Rakesh Mohan, former
Deputy Governor, RBI, emphasises the need for modernisation and expansion of
all segments of the transport system. 
The Report is to be presented to the Prime Minister Dr.Manmohan
Singh tomorrow.

The NTDPC was set up in 2010 to
assess the transport requirements of the economy for the next two decades in
the context of the changes in economic, demographic and technological trends expected
at local, national and global levels; and to recommend a comprehensive and
sustainable policy for meeting such requirements. 
The Committee comprised of
Secretaries of central ministries, private sector representatives, and eminent
persons/experts from the transport sector. The Committee held consultations
with State Governments in 2012-13 and also received technical assistance from
the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank in its work.  The Interim Report of the Committee was
earlier submitted to the Government in April, 2012.
Report sets the conditions for a coherent system based transport strategy for
the two decades beginning with the 12th Five Year Plan to the end of the 15th
Five Year Plan.  The Report represents
new thinking on how to look at different sectors in an integrated fashion and
suggests mechanisms and measures for carrying this approach forward in a manner
that reduces the resource costs involved.
To enable sustained high economic
growth over the next two decades, investment in transport would need to
increase from the current about 2.6 per cent of GDP to about 3.3 per cent in
the 12th Plan, and then stabilise at about 3.7 per cent of GDP until 2032.
Based on the macro modelling framework utilised, the projections envisage that
with appropriate economic pricing and adequate regulation, sustainability can
be achieved in the transport sector; and resources can be attracted from both
private and public sectors. Moreover, the resource projections suggest that the
country can become more ambitious in transport projects in the 13th Plan and
While the Report addresses sectoral issues in detail, it addresses a number of wider
issues that affect the transport system as a whole. Its focus is on
cross-cutting themes underlying transport strategy and the resulting investment
programmes. It is not so much about specific solutions, as it is about
developing human resource capacity, and developing responsive institutions for
achieving the overall strategy and outcomes envisaged.
One of the significant findings
of the Committee is that there is lack of expertise within the whole transport
system: from policy making to designing and execution. The Report thus focuses specific
attention on developing research and human resource capacity at all levels, and
developing responsive institutions for achieving the overall strategy and
outcomes envisaged. It also proposes reform measures in regulation,
rationalisation of fiscal regimes and embedding safety concerns in all
transport planning and execution.
Taking note of the weak
institutional framework for policy, planning and coordination in transport at
the central and state levels the Report argues for decentralised coordination
keeping in view the federal nature of the country. To this end, the Report
advocates re-aligning transport governance and proposes establishment of
Offices of Transport Strategy at the national and state level within the 12th
Plan period.  The Report also recommends
a unified Ministry of Transport at the centre, with similar merger of transport
functions at the state level. At the metropolitan city level it advocates the
formation of Metropolitan Urban Transport authorities. These institutions should
be embedded with adequate technocratic capacity in both quality and quantity.
In its vision for a modern
transport system for the country, the Report also takes cognizance of the
probable growth rate of energy usage in transportation and its impact on environment,
and has made several recommendations with regard to policy on emissions
standards, pollution control, use of information and communication technology,
and advocates a Life Cycle Analysis approach to transport planning. With regard
to transportation of energy commodities, which is a greater challenge to the
economy, the recommendations include concentration of investment in railways
and proactive action in port development, including coastal shipping.  The Report has devoted exclusive chapters for
Transport Development in the North East and another on Promoting International
Connectivity between India and the South and South East Asia regions.
While the main section of this
Report looks at these broader systemic issues and makes recommendations on how
to achieve these goals, the second section, looks at specific sectors, and what
needs to be done to take these to the next stage of development commensurate
with our aspirations as a nation.  These
and Road Transport
and Shipping
Urban Transport

The Executive Summary and the
full report of the High Level Committee on National Transport Development
Policy can be accessed on the official website of the Planning Commission