Timeline in Ancient Indian History – 400B.C. to 450A.D.

Year Event
c.400 BC Gautama ‘Buddha’ founds Buddhism
333 BC  Persian rule in the northwest ends after Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great. Alexander had established the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
326 BC  Ambhi, king of Taxila surrenders to Alexander. Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
321 BC  Mauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha after he defeats the Nanda dynasty and Macedonian Seleucid Empire. Mauryan capital city is Patliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar)
305 BC  Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.
304 BC  Seleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent (Afghanistan/Baluchistan) to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers to marry his daughter to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.
273 BC  Ashoka the Great, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, ascends as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
266 BC  Ashoka conquers and unifies most of South Asia, along with Afghanistan and eastern Iran.
265 BC  Kalinga War takes place. After conquering Kalinga, Ashoka regrets the killings in the war, leading him to adopt Buddhism, which then became the quasi-official state religion of the Mauryan Empire.
260s  Ashoka begins displaying religious tolerance, grants animal rights, builds hospitals for people and animals, treats his subjects as equals regardless of caste or creed, and promotes non-violence and republicanism. Ashoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka, written down using Brahmi script.
232 BC  Ashoka dies and is succeeded by Kunala.
230 BC Simuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire.
200 BC  Kuninda Kingdom established.
200-100 BC  Tholkappiyam describes the grammar and morphology of Tamil; it is the oldest existing Tamil grammar (dates vary between 200 BCE and 100 CE).
184 BC  The Mauryan Empire, which shrunk considerably, collapsed after its emperor Brihadrata was assassinated by his general Pusyamitra Sunga who then established the Sunga dynasty.
180 BC Establishment of the Indo-Greek kingdom.
80 BC Establishment of the Indo-Scythian kingdom.
65 BC The Pandyan king sends ambassadors to the Greek and Roman lands.
57 BC Beginning of Vikram Era
10 AD Establishment of the Indo-Parthian kingdom.
68 AD Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises.
78 AD Gautamiputra Satkarni becomes Satavahana emperor and starts Shalivahana era calendar after defeating Scythian king Vikramaditya.
35 AD  Western Satraps formed.
240 AD Sri-Gupta starts the Gupta Empire in Magadha, with its capital in Patliputra
320 AD Chandragupta I ascends to the Gupta throne.
335 AD Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.
380 AD Chandragupta II, Samudragupta’s son becomes the Gupta Emperor.
450 AD Invasions by the Huna.
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