Instructions for UPSC Medical Science Optional Paper
- Each paper has duration of 3 hours and total 250 marks.
- Candidate has to attempt FIVE questions in all.
Nos. 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, THREE are to be
attempted choosing at least ONE question from each Section.
- Illustrate your answers with suitable sketches and diagrams, whenever considered necessary. Colored pencils may be used for this purpose.
must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate
which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer
(QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers
written in medium other than the authorized one.
- Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.
of questions shall be counted in chronological order. Unless struck
off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partly.
Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-cum-Answer
Booklet must be clearly struck off.
Q1.Answer all the following:
- Describe the zones and lobes of prostate gland. Add a note on applied anatomy of benign prostatic hypertrophy.
the lateral descending tracts. List the effects of their lesion. What
will happen to sensory loss in the lesion around central canal of spinal
- Describe the morphological characteristics of platelets and their functions. What will happen in their deficiency?
- Give a brief account of the mechanism of locking and unlocking of knee joint.
- Enumerate the various anti-oxidant vitamins and write about any one of them.
Q2. Answer the following :(20+15+15 marks)
- Write the various roles of calcium in the body. How blood calcium is level regulated?
- Explain the term Ovulation. Name the hormones necessary for ovulation. How is the knowledge of ovulation time helpful?
- Enumerate the branches of facial nerve and write a brief no on Bell’s palsy.
Q3. Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
sleep. What are the different types of sleep? What are the differences
in sleep of a newborn compared to that of an adult? What type of waves
will be seen in electroencephalographic record in deep sleep?
- Describe the effects of damage to radial nerve at the level of deltoid tuberosity.
is obstructive jaundice? Enumerate the various biochemical tests which
you would prescribe to the patient. Write their biochemical basis of
changes you expect.
Q4. Answer the following :(20+15+15 marks)
- Describe the boundaries of inguinal canal. Add a note on the anatomy of different types of inguinal hernias.
- What are the functions of placenta? What do you mean by feto-placental unit?
- What are the advantages of breast-feeding? Why is there amenorrhoea during lactation?
Q5.Answer all the following:
- Describe the pre-malignant lesions in oral mucosa.
- Discuss the role of Natural Killer (NK) cells and Antibody Dependent Cytotoxic Cells (ADCC).
- Write down the mechanism of action of Cyclophosphamide and its adverse effects.
- Describe the pathological changes and complications of Acute
dead body of a woman aged about 30 years was found in the river water.
Describe how the autopsy surgeon will ascertain on post-mortem
examination that the death was due to drowning.
Q6. Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
and classify Diabetes mellitus. Discuss the pathophysiology of Type- 2
diabetes. What are the complications of uncontrolled diabetes?
the mechanism of analgesic effect of morphine. Mention the adverse
reactions of morphine and the antidotal treatment in its poisoning.
- Discuss the etiology of bacillary dysentery and its laboratory diagnosis.
Q7. Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
25-year-old young male has been brought for medical examination to the
hospital by the police with alleged history of committing rape on a
12-year-old girl. How will the medical officer proceed to examine and
what laboratory investigations shall be carried out and what type of
material shall be preserved to establish whether he has committed the
alleged crime or not?
- A young female has consumed carbolic acid
accidentally. How will you establish the diagnosis and treat the
patient? Describe the expected post-mortem findings in the event of
death of such a patient.
- Write the general mechanism of action
of antimicrobial drugs. Discuss the mechanism of action and adverse
reactions of penicillins.
Q8. Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
- Discuss the pathogenicity of poliovirus infection. How is this virus isolated during surveillance programme?
- What are the characteristic features of a malignant tumour? Discuss the pathways of cancer spread.
- Discuss the mechanism of the following vasodilator drugs :
- Glyceryl trinitrate
Q1.Answer the following:
42-year-old lady from rural area has come with hugely distended
abdomen, protuberant umbilicus and visible veins. She recently had
bleeding per rectum. She has been running low-grade fever and cough for
long. Give your differential diagnosis giving five important diagnostic
features of each. Give a flowchart of your approach to this case.
40-year-old drug addict was found in a drowsy state on road. He was
severely malnourished, cachectic and dehydrated. His blood pressure was
70 mm of Hg. Name the diseases with their five distinctive features to
which drug addicts are prone to. What is Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia?
How would you investigate and treat?
- Enumerate the common
causes of community-acquired pneumonia in under-five children. Discuss
the criteria for diagnosis and classification of pneumonia in the
community, without resorting to investigations.
- Enlist the
diagnostic criteria for severe malnutrition according to WHO
classification in under-five children. Discuss the home/community-based
management of children with moderate malnutrition.
- Enumerate the points of differentiation between psoriatic and rheumatoid arthropathy.
Q2. Answer the following: (25+15+10 marks)
60-year-old chronic smoker, obese gentleman who had been suffering from
diabetes for last five years, not on regular treatment, developed
‘Ghabarahat) and sudden breathless and perspiration. How would you work
up this case? Draw a flowchart. Enumerate the line of treatment in case
ECG indicates acute inferior wall myocardial infarction. Which lifestyle
measures would you suggest to this person?
- How can you recognize heart failure in infants below 1 year of age? Enumerate the common causes of heart failure in infants.
- “Vitiligo is a multifactorial, polygenic disorder.” Give your justification to support the statement.
Q3. Answer the following: (25+15+10 marks)
is late September month of year. A 25-year-old young executive from
tribal area has been brought to hospital with high fever, rashes all
over the body and bleeding nose. Give your differential diagnosis. Name
the investigations you will carry, out in this case to confirm your
diagnosis. In case his platelets fall to 15000 per cu mm, how does it
help you in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment? Describe the clinical
features and treatment of dengue shock syndrome.
- Discuss the etiology and pathophysiology of kernicterus in newborns. How can you prevent kernicterus?
mason working at a building site has developed itchy, oozing lesions of
hands and feet. What is the likely diagnosis? How will you identify the
causative agent in him and manage the case?
Q4. Answer the following: (25+15+10 marks)
32-year-old lady with 12-week amenorrhoea has been brought to casualty
with high fever. She is noted to have deep jaundice. List your
differential diagnosis giving five essential features of each entity.
Discuss your plan of investigations. What would be your plan of
treatment in case it turns out to be hepatitis B and urine output in 24
hours drops to mere 200 ml?
- Describe the characteristics of
Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) vaccine. Enumerate the diseases which can
be prevented by this vaccine. Describe the primary schedule of
vaccination with Hib vaccine in an 8-month–old child.
- What is
Stevens – Johnson syndrome (SJS)? Enumerate the common etiological
factors and pathological events leading to its clinical manifestations.
Q5. Answer the following:
- Describe briefly the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of a patient with coarctation of aorta.
- Briefly enumerate and discuss the various therapeutic esopha-goduodenoscopic procedures.
are the signs and symptoms of first trimester of pregnancy? How would
you confirm the diagnosis of first trimester of pregnancy?
- Enumerate the various tests of ovulation in a 20-year-old woman. What is the advantage of knowing the exact time of ovulation?
- Write about the Revised National Drug Policy for treatment of malaria.
Q6. Answer the following: (15+20+15 marks)
are the various causes of upper gastromtestanel (GI) bleed? Briefly
discuss how you will assess and manage a patient with massive upper
- What is abnormal lie? Enumerate the
various causes of transverse lie multiparous woman. How will you manage
the case of transverse lie at term with a live foetus?
- What are the principles of hospital waste management? Describe various treatment and disposal technologies for biomedical waste.
Q7. Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
- Describe the clinical features, investigations and management of patients with ulcerative colitis.
few commonly used intrauterine devices. What areindications,
contraindications and complications of intrauterine device?
- Enumerate the Millennium Development Goals related to health Describe the challenges for MDG.
Q8. Answer the following: (15+15+20 marks)
the differential diagnosis in a 60-year-old male with painless,
progressive jaundice of 2 months and palpable gallbladder. Briefly
discuss how you will assess, investigate and manage a patient with a
mass in pancreatic head.
- Define anteparturn haemorrhage. How
would you manage a patient at 34 weeks of pregnancy who comes to
casualty with a history of painless bout of bleeding? Mention the foetal
and maternal complications associated with this condition.
- Describe the steps in designing, conducting and analyzing a cohort study for diabetes mellitus.